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Open AccessArticle

Prospective Analysis of Vegetable Amount and Variety on the Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among US Adults, 1999–2011

1
Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2420 2nd Ave. N, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
2
Delta Human Nutrition Research Program, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101377
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Diversity and Diet Quality)
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 (DGA) provides recommendations for consuming a specific amount and variety of vegetables, but no studies have assessed the relationship between DGA-recommended vegetable variety and risk of mortality. We prospectively assessed the relationship between vegetable amount and variety and the risk of mortality using nationally-representative survey data (n = 29,133). Hazard ratios were estimated using survey-weighted, multivariate, Cox-proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (12.8 years maximum). Total deaths from all causes were 2861, which included 829 deaths from cardiometabolic disease (556 coronary heart disease, 170 stroke, and 103 diabetes). Compared to individuals who reported consuming the greatest amount of vegetables daily, those with the least intake had a 78% greater risk of mortality from all causes (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.29–2.47), a 68% greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease (1.68, 1.08–2.62), and an 80% greater risk of death from coronary heart disease (1.80, 1.09–2.08). No relationships were observed between vegetable variety and risk of all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Greater vegetable amount, but not variety, was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies with repeated measures of dietary exposure are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetable; variety; index; cardiometabolic; cardiovascular; heart disease; mortality; survival vegetable; variety; index; cardiometabolic; cardiovascular; heart disease; mortality; survival
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Conrad, Z.; Thomson, J.; Jahns, L. Prospective Analysis of Vegetable Amount and Variety on the Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among US Adults, 1999–2011. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1377.

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