Since oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in seizure-related neurotoxicity, the neuroprotective effect of a white rose (Rosa hybrida
) petal extract (WRPE) in mice that are challenged with kainic acid (KA) were examined using behavioral epileptiform seizures as well as biochemical and morphological parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation. WRPE (50–200 mg/kg) was orally administered to male ICR mice for 15 days, and intraperitoneally challenged with KA (30 mg/kg). Seizure activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokines, and related enzymes were analyzed in the brain tissue, in addition to the morphological alterations in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Separately, antioxidant ingredients in WRPE were analyzed, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities of WRPE were investigated in HB1.F3 human neural stem cells (NSCs) to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in WRPE were 303.3 ± 15.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 18.5 ± 2.2 mg catechin/g extract, respectively. WRPE exhibited strong radical-scavenging activities and inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro, and protected glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in NSCs by suppressing inflammatory process. Treatment with WRPE attenuated epileptiform seizure scores to a half level in KA-challenged mice, and decreased hippocampal pyramidal neuronal injury and loss (cresyl violet and DAPI staining) as well as astrocyte activation (GFAP immunostaining). Lipid peroxidation was inhibited, and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, PHGPx, SOD1, and SOD2) were recovered in the brain tissues. Inflammatory parameters (cytokines and enzymes) including NF-kB, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1, TGF-β, iNOS, COX2, and GFAP mRNAs and proteins were also down-regulated by WRPE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that WRPE could attenuate KA-induced brain injury through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
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