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Article

Estimating Evapotranspiration of Mediterranean Oak Savanna at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Resolutions. Implications for Water Resources Management

1
Andalusian Institute for Research and Training in Agriculture and Fischeries, IFAPA, Centro Alameda del Obispo, Avd. M. Pidal s/n, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
2
Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, USDA ARS, Bldg. 007, BARC West, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
3
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Timothy Dube, Munyaradzi Davies Shekede and Christian Massari
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(18), 3701; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183701
Received: 7 July 2021 / Revised: 26 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Water Resources and Environmental Management)
Mediterranean oak savanna is composed of a mixture of scattered oak trees, crops, pasture, and shrubs. It is the most widespread agroforestry landscape in Europe, and its conservation faces multiple threats including water scarcity, which has been exacerbated by global warming and greater climate variability. Evapotranspiration (ET) can be used as a proxy of the vegetation water status and response to water shortage conditions, providing relevant information about the ecosystem stability and its hydrological dynamics. This study evaluates a framework to estimate ET at multiple spatial and temporal scales and applies it to the monitoring of the oak savanna vegetation water consumption for the years 2013–2015. We used a remote sensing-based energy balance model (ALEXI/DisALEXI approach), and the STARFM data fusion technique to provide daily ET estimates at 30 m resolution. The results showed that modeled energy balance components compared well to ground measurements collected by an eddy covariance system, with root mean square error (RMSE) values ranging between 0.60 and 2.18 MJ m−2 d−1, depending on the sensor dataset (MODIS or Landsat) and the flux. The daily 30 m ET series generated by STARFM presented an RMSE value of 0.67 mm d−1, which yielded a slight improvement compared to using MODIS resolution or more simple interpolation approaches with Landsat. However, the major advantage of the high spatio-temporal resolution was found in the analysis of ET dynamics over different vegetation patches that shape the landscape structure and create different microclimates. Fine-scale ET maps (30 m, daily) provide key information difficult to detect at a coarser spatial resolution over heterogeneous landscapes and may assist management decisions at the field and farm scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring; dehesa; surface energy balance; spatio-temporal resolution; management practices evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring; dehesa; surface energy balance; spatio-temporal resolution; management practices
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpintero, E.; Anderson, M.C.; Andreu, A.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; González-Dugo, M.P. Estimating Evapotranspiration of Mediterranean Oak Savanna at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Resolutions. Implications for Water Resources Management. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3701. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183701

AMA Style

Carpintero E, Anderson MC, Andreu A, Hain C, Gao F, Kustas WP, González-Dugo MP. Estimating Evapotranspiration of Mediterranean Oak Savanna at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Resolutions. Implications for Water Resources Management. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(18):3701. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183701

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpintero, Elisabet, Martha C. Anderson, Ana Andreu, Christopher Hain, Feng Gao, William P. Kustas, and María P. González-Dugo 2021. "Estimating Evapotranspiration of Mediterranean Oak Savanna at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Resolutions. Implications for Water Resources Management" Remote Sensing 13, no. 18: 3701. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183701

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