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Evolution of the Performances of Radar Altimetry Missions from ERS-2 to Sentinel-3A over the Inner Niger Delta

1
Oceanic and Continental Environments and Paleoenvironments (EPOC), Mixed Research Unit (UMR) 5805, University of Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
2
Geosciences Environment Toulouse (GET), University of Toulouse, National Center for Scientific Reaseach (CNRS), Institute for Research and Development (IRD), UPS. Observatory Midi-Pyrénées (OMP), 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
3
Laboratory of Studies on Spatial Geophysics and Space Oceanography (LEGOS), University of Toulouse, National Center for Space Studies (CNES), CNRS, IRD, UPS. OMP, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
4
Department of Education and Research (DER) Math-Informatics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FST)/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bomako (USTTB), Bamako 3206, Mali
5
National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (IRSTEA), IRD, 361 rue Jean-François Breton, 34196 Montpellier, France
6
Laboratory of Optics, Spectroscopy and Atmospheric Sciences (LOSSA), Department of Education and Research (DER) Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FST)/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bomako (USTTB), Bamako 3206, Mali
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060833
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Altimetry for Earth Sciences)
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Abstract

Radar altimetry provides unique information on water stages of inland hydro-systems. In this study, the performance of seven altimetry missions, among the most commonly used in land hydrology (i.e., European Remote-Sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2), ENVIronment SATellite (ENVISAT), Satellite with Argos and ALtika (SARAL), Jason-1, Jason-2, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A), are assessed using records from a dense in situ network composed of 19 gauge stations in the Inner Niger Delta (IND) from 1995 to 2017. Results show an overall very good agreement between altimetry-based and in situ water levels with correlation coefficient (R) greater than 0.8 in 80% of the cases and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) lower than 0.4 m in 48% of cases. Better agreement is found for the recently launched missions such as SARAL, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A than for former missions, indicating the advance of the use of the Ka-band for SARAL and of the Synthetic-aperture Radar (SAR) mode for Sentinel-3A. Cross-correlation analysis performed between water levels from the same altimetry mission leads to time-lags between the upstream and the downstream part of the Inner Niger Delta of around two months that can be related to the time residence of water in the drainage area. View Full-Text
Keywords: altimetry; water levels; validation; Inner Niger Delta altimetry; water levels; validation; Inner Niger Delta
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Normandin, C.; Frappart, F.; Diepkilé, A.T.; Marieu, V.; Mougin, E.; Blarel, F.; Lubac, B.; Braquet, N.; Ba, A. Evolution of the Performances of Radar Altimetry Missions from ERS-2 to Sentinel-3A over the Inner Niger Delta. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 833.

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