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Article

Analysis of Apple Fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Quality Attributes Obtained from Organic and Integrated Production Systems

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Department Fruit Science and Viticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Innovative Centre Faculty of Chemistry Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, University of Belgrade, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
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Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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NIBIO Ullensvang, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ullensvangvegen 1005, 5781 Lofthus, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sezai Ercisli
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5300; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095300
Received: 17 March 2022 / Revised: 15 April 2022 / Accepted: 24 April 2022 / Published: 27 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agroecology and Sustainable Organic Farming Systems)
The aim of this study was to compare total phenolic content (TPC), radical-scavenging activity (RSA), total anthocyanin content (TAC), sugar and polyphenolic profiles of two apple cultivars (‘Discovery’ and ‘Red Aroma Orelind’) from organic and integrated production systems in climatic conditions of Western Norway. Sixteen sugars and four sugar alcohols and 19 polyphenols were found in the peel, but less polyphenols were detected in the pulp. The peel of both apples and in both production systems had significantly higher TPC and RSA than the pulp. The peel from integrated apples had higher TPC than the peel from organic apples, while organic apples had higher TAC than the integrated. Sucrose and glucose levels were higher in organic apples; fructose was cultivar dependent while minor sugars were higher in integrated fruits. The most abundant polyphenolic compound in the peel of the tested cultivars was quercetin 3-O-galactoside, while chlorogenic acid was most abundant in the pulp. Regarding polyphenols, phloretin, phloridzin, protocatechuic acid, baicalein and naringenin were higher in organic apple, while quercetin 3-O-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid and syringic acid was higher in integrated fruits. In conclusion, organic ‘Discovery’ and integrated ‘Red Aroma Orelind’ had higher bioavailability of health related compounds from the peel and the pulp. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar profile; phenolics; total phenolic content; radical-scavenging activity; total anthocyanin content; Norway sugar profile; phenolics; total phenolic content; radical-scavenging activity; total anthocyanin content; Norway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fotirić Akšić, M.; Dabić Zagorac, D.; Gašić, U.; Tosti, T.; Natić, M.; Meland, M. Analysis of Apple Fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Quality Attributes Obtained from Organic and Integrated Production Systems. Sustainability 2022, 14, 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095300

AMA Style

Fotirić Akšić M, Dabić Zagorac D, Gašić U, Tosti T, Natić M, Meland M. Analysis of Apple Fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Quality Attributes Obtained from Organic and Integrated Production Systems. Sustainability. 2022; 14(9):5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fotirić Akšić, Milica, Dragana Dabić Zagorac, Uroš Gašić, Tomislav Tosti, Maja Natić, and Mekjell Meland. 2022. "Analysis of Apple Fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) Quality Attributes Obtained from Organic and Integrated Production Systems" Sustainability 14, no. 9: 5300. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095300

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