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Article

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mixing Gray and Green Infrastructures to Adapt to Sea Level Rise in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta

1
Climate Change and Development, VNU-Vietnam Japan University, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
2
Global and Local Environment Co-Creation Institute, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan
3
Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10356; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410356
Received: 9 October 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Air, Climate Change and Sustainability)
This study evaluated inundation impacts and the economic damage resulting from sea level rise (SLR) in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta (VMRD), and identified the effectiveness of mixing gray and green infrastructures using cost-benefit analysis. The results showed that the VMRD could potentially be heavily affected by SLR. Without the implementation of proper adaptations, more than 90% of this area could be below sea level and nearly 20 million people could be affected by inundation by the end of the 21st century. The total economic damage could reach more than 22,000 billion US$ (2010 real value) by 2100 with no discount rate. These threats may increase the pressure on the region to ensure well-being, equity, and progress towards achieving sustainable development goals. However, achieving these goals will require the implementation of adaptations for upgrading and restoring in the region. This study assessed the effectiveness of adaptations and demonstrated that mixing gray and green infrastructures could benefit coastal inhabitants at a cost of 12 to 19 billion US$. View Full-Text
Keywords: inundation; adaptation; protection; dike; mangrove; cost-benefit analysis inundation; adaptation; protection; dike; mangrove; cost-benefit analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oanh, P.T.; Tamura, M.; Kumano, N.; Nguyen, Q.V. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mixing Gray and Green Infrastructures to Adapt to Sea Level Rise in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10356. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410356

AMA Style

Oanh PT, Tamura M, Kumano N, Nguyen QV. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mixing Gray and Green Infrastructures to Adapt to Sea Level Rise in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10356. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oanh, Pham T., Makoto Tamura, Naoko Kumano, and Quang V. Nguyen 2020. "Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mixing Gray and Green Infrastructures to Adapt to Sea Level Rise in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10356. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410356

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