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Article

Potential for Production of Biochar-Based Fertilizers from Olive Mill Waste in Mediterranean Basin Countries: An Initial Assessment for Spain, Tunisia, and Greece

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BETA Technological Center, University of Vic–University of Central Catalonia, Carrer de la Laura 13, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain
2
Soil & Water Resources Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation “DEMETER”, 57400 Sindos, Central Macedonia, Greece
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Laboratory of Wastewaters and Environment, Centre of Water Researches and Technologies (CERTE) Technopark of Borj Cedria PB 273, Soliman 8020, Tunisia
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Mulhouse Institute of Materials Sciences, Université de Haute-Alsace, CNRS, IS2M UMR 7361, F-68100 Mulhouse, France
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Université de Strasbourg, F-67081 Strasbourg, France
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PEIE Research Chair for the Development of Industrial Estates and Free Zones, Center for Environmental Studies and Research, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoud, Muscat 123, Oman
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Composting Research Group UBUCOMP, Universidad de Burgos, Faculty of Sciences, Pl. Misael Bañuelos s/n, 09001 Burgos, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6081; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156081
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Strategies Development in the Framework of Circular Economy)
Olive mill wastes continue to be a management challenge due to the large volumes produced, particularly due to their toxicity and impacts on the environment. Thermal conversion through pyrolysis or hydrothermal carbonization techniques can detoxify wastes while conserving nutrient contents. In this work, we produced up-to-date data on olive mill waste flows in Spain, Tunisia, and Greece and characterized representative samples in the laboratory. Assays of thermal conversion of olive mill wastewaters and solid wastes were also performed to understand biochar yields and final properties, and the total quantities of nutrients contained were estimated. Of particular note were the quantities of potassium in Tunisian wastewaters, representing 0.6% of the total mass and an annual flow of approximately 5000 t, and in the Spanish solid wastes, an average of 1.7% of the total mass is potassium, representing an annual flow of approximately 23,000 t. Concerning phosphorus, Spanish solid wastes had the highest contents (0.1%), double that of other countries’ wastes. Annually, olive mill wastes from the three countries are estimated to contain approximately 35 × 103 tons of potassium and 2.6 × 103 tons of phosphorus. With this resource converted to biochar, each year more than 700 km2 of soils could be enriched in 0.2% carbon with biochar at an application rate of 7 t ha−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive mill solid waste; olive mill wastewater; Mediterranean Basin; biochar; hydrochar; nutrients; carbon olive mill solid waste; olive mill wastewater; Mediterranean Basin; biochar; hydrochar; nutrients; carbon
MDPI and ACS Style

Marks, E.A.N.; Kinigopoulou, V.; Akrout, H.; Azzaz, A.A.; Doulgeris, C.; Jellali, S.; Rad, C.; Sánchez Zulueta, P.; Tziritis, E.; El-Bassi, L.; Matei Ghimbeu, C.; Jeguirim, M. Potential for Production of Biochar-Based Fertilizers from Olive Mill Waste in Mediterranean Basin Countries: An Initial Assessment for Spain, Tunisia, and Greece. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6081. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156081

AMA Style

Marks EAN, Kinigopoulou V, Akrout H, Azzaz AA, Doulgeris C, Jellali S, Rad C, Sánchez Zulueta P, Tziritis E, El-Bassi L, Matei Ghimbeu C, Jeguirim M. Potential for Production of Biochar-Based Fertilizers from Olive Mill Waste in Mediterranean Basin Countries: An Initial Assessment for Spain, Tunisia, and Greece. Sustainability. 2020; 12(15):6081. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156081

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marks, Evan A.N., Vasiliki Kinigopoulou, Hanene Akrout, Ahmed Amine Azzaz, Charalampos Doulgeris, Salah Jellali, Carlos Rad, Paula Sánchez Zulueta, Evangelos Tziritis, Leila El-Bassi, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu, and Mejdi Jeguirim. 2020. "Potential for Production of Biochar-Based Fertilizers from Olive Mill Waste in Mediterranean Basin Countries: An Initial Assessment for Spain, Tunisia, and Greece" Sustainability 12, no. 15: 6081. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156081

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