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Open AccessArticle

Critical Issues at the Upstream Level in Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Agri-Food Industries: Evidence from Pakistan’s Citrus Industry

1
Institute of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab 38040, Pakistan
2
College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, No. 1, Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Institute of Business Management Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab 38040, Pakistan
4
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton 4343, Australia
5
Department of Economics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This research is the outcome of one of the objectives of the first author’s doctoral dissertation.
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051326
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract

Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has recently received increasing attention from researchers and the business community. Due to globalization and changing consumption patterns, agri-food industries have undergone a transformation, and the sustainability of agri-food supply chains has also received greater attention. However, the issues of SSCM at the upstream level of the supply chain in agri-food industries have not been adequately empirically studied. This paper aims to list key issues or constraints in the production and marketing through farmers’ group discussions, supplemented by the literature, and empirically identifies key constraints to SSCM of the citrus industry in Pakistan. The paper used cross-sectional data from 300 farmers involved in the production and marketing of citrus in Punjab, Pakistan. Farmers were asked to answer on a Likert scale data about potential constraints identified from the literature and farmers’ group discussions. Kendell’s coefficient of concordance and the mean ranking technique was used to rank and to identify the critical constraints in the production and marketing of citrus. In addition, factor analysis (principal component analysis) was used for the grouping of these constraints. In production constraints, factors, such as fertilizer, pesticide, and seed quality, climate change, high production cost, and agricultural labor performance, are important. These constraints are aligned with some key marketing factors, such as packaging, grading, and storage facilities. The findings convey messages for policymakers to solve these issues and challenges at the upstream level of the SSCM chain in the citrus and related agri-food industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: agri-food supply chains; critical issues; sustainability; citrus production; marketing; Pakistan agri-food supply chains; critical issues; sustainability; citrus production; marketing; Pakistan
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Naseer, M.A.R.; Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Abbas, A.; Razzaq, A.; Mehdi, M.; Ariyawardana, A.; Anwar, M. Critical Issues at the Upstream Level in Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Agri-Food Industries: Evidence from Pakistan’s Citrus Industry. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1326.

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