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Effect of Cadmium, Copper and Lead on the Growth of Rice in the Coal Mining Region of Quang Ninh, Cam-Pha (Vietnam)

1
Institute for Earth and Environmental Science, Albert-Ludwigs University, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
2
AGHYLE, UniLaSalle, 60026 Beauvais cedex, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: SRK Consulting, Vancouver, BC V6E 3X2, Canada.
Current address: Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, 09599 Freiberg, Germany.
§
Current address: Quang Ninh University of Industry, Dong Trieu, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
||
Current address: Max-Planck-Research Group Paleobiogeochemistry, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061758
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 27 May 2018
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Abstract

The goal of this study was to quantify the mobility and partitioning of trace elements originating from mine waste rocks derived from open pit coal extraction activities. The results showed that native rice plants were adapted to growing in metal contaminated soils, posing a severe health risk to local population. Sequential extraction procedures and bulk soil chemical analyses both suggest enrichment of Cd, Pb and Cu in rice paddy soils. Lead was shown to be evenly partitioned among all mineral and organic phases. Copper was associated with carbonates and organic matter. Smaller fractions of Pb and Cu were also bound to Fe and Mn oxides. Only 25% of Cd, 9% of Pb and 48% of Cu were associated with the exchangeable fraction, considered mobile and thus bioavailable for plant uptake. Effects of Cd, Cu and Pb on local Cam Pha Nep cai Hoa vang, and control Asia Italian rice, showed marked differences in growth. The local Vietnamese variety grew close to control values, even upon exposure to higher trace metal concentrations. Whereas the development of the control rice species was significantly affected by increasing trace metal concentrations. This result suggests toxic trace elements accumulation in the edible parts of crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: open-pit coal mining; Oryza sativa L.; rice plant contamination; contaminated paddy soil; metals open-pit coal mining; Oryza sativa L.; rice plant contamination; contaminated paddy soil; metals
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Marquez, J.E.; Pourret, O.; Faucon, M.-P.; Weber, S.; Hoàng, T.B.H.; Martinez, R.E. Effect of Cadmium, Copper and Lead on the Growth of Rice in the Coal Mining Region of Quang Ninh, Cam-Pha (Vietnam). Sustainability 2018, 10, 1758.

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