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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.
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Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2016) – 6 articles

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Editorial
A New Era in the Control of Tuberculosis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6644 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 84
Abstract
In the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world faced an unexpected resurgence of tuberculosis. [...] Full article
Article
Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 50-56; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6594 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 115
Abstract
In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/ irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period [...] Read more.
In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/ irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. Full article
Review
New Antituberculosis Drugs: From Clinical Trial to Programmatic Use
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 43-49; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6569 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive [...] Read more.
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials. Delamanid is the first drug of the nitroimidazole class to enter clinical practice. Similarly to bedaquiline results of phase IIb studies showed increased sputum-culture conversion at 2 months and better final treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB. Among repurposed drugs linezolid and carbapenems may represent a valuable drug to treat cases of MDR and extensively drugresistant TB. The recommended regimen for MDR-TB is the combination of at least four drugs to which M. tuberculosis is likely to be susceptible for the duration of 20 months. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Clinical phase III trials on new regimen are ongoing that could prove transformative against MDR-TB, by being shorter (six months), simpler (an alloral regimen) and safer than current standard therapy. It is fundamental that the adoption of the new drugs is done responsibly to avoid inappropriate use. Concentration of inpatient MDR-TB treatment in specialized centers could be considered in countries with low numbers of cases in order to provide appropriate clinical case management and to prevent emergence of drug resistance. Full article
Review
Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains: A Fundamental Tool for Tuberculosis Control and Elimination
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 38-42; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6567 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 113
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An improvement of the strategies for disease control is necessary in both low- and high-incidence TB countries. Clinicians, epidemiologists, laboratory specialists, and public health players should work together in order to [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An improvement of the strategies for disease control is necessary in both low- and high-incidence TB countries. Clinicians, epidemiologists, laboratory specialists, and public health players should work together in order to achieve a significant reduction in TB transmission and spread of drug-resistant strains. Effective TB surveillance relies on early diagnosis of new cases, appropriate therapy, and accurate detection of outbreaks in the community, in order to implement proper TB control strategies. To achieve this goal, information from classical and molecular epidemiology, together with patient clinical data need to be combined. In this review, we summarize the methodologies currently used in molecular epidemiology, namely molecular typing. We will discuss their efficiency to phylogenetically characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and their ability to provide information that can be useful for disease control. We will also introduce next generation sequencing as the methodology that potentially could provide in a short time both, detection of new outbreaks and identification of resistance patterns. This could envision a potential of next generation sequencing as an important tool for accurate patient management and disease control. Full article
Review
Tuberculosis 2015: Burden, Challenges and Strategy for Control and Elimination
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 33-37; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6570 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 134 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for about 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths annually. The poorest and socially excluded groups carry the largest burden of disease, which makes it essential to properly address the [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for about 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths annually. The poorest and socially excluded groups carry the largest burden of disease, which makes it essential to properly address the social determinants of health through poverty reduction measures and targeted interventions on high-risk populations. The spread of multidrug-resistance TB requires special attention and highlights the need to foster research on TB diagnostics, new drugs and vaccines. Although many advances have been made in the fight against TB over the last twenty years, a lot is still needed to achieve global elimination. The new end-TB strategy that was first launched in 2014 by the World Health Organization, is fully in line with the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals that came into effect since January 2016 and sets ambitious goals for the post-2015 agenda. A 90% reduction in TB-related mortality and an 80% decline in TB incidence within 2030 as well as the abolition of catastrophic expenditures for TB-affected people are the main targets of this strategy. Strong government commitment and adequate financing from all countries together with community engagement and appropriate investments in research are necessary in order to reach these objectives. Full article
Review
Tuberculosis Biomarkers: From Diagnosis to Protection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(2), 24-32; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6568 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 99 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
New approaches to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide are needed. In particular, new tools for diagnosis and new biomarkers are required to evaluate both pathogen and host key elements of the response to infection. Non-sputum based diagnostic tests, biomarkers predictive of adequate responsiveness to [...] Read more.
New approaches to control tuberculosis (TB) worldwide are needed. In particular, new tools for diagnosis and new biomarkers are required to evaluate both pathogen and host key elements of the response to infection. Non-sputum based diagnostic tests, biomarkers predictive of adequate responsiveness to treatment, and biomarkers of risk of developing active TB disease are major goals. Here, we review the current state of the field. Although reports on new candidate biomarkers are numerous, validation and independent confirmation are rare. Efforts are needed to reduce the gap between the exploratory up-stream identification of candidate biomarkers, and the validation of biomarkers against clear clinical endpoints in different populations. This will need a major commitment from both scientists and funding bodies. Full article
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