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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.
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Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 5 articles

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Review
Pityriasis rosea, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, asymmetric periflexural exanthem, papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, and eruptive hypomelanosis: do their epidemiological data substantiate infectious etiologies?
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(1), 12-23; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6418 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 122
Abstract
Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papularpurpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis [...] Read more.
Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papularpurpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future. Full article
Case Report
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Bacteremia without Endocarditis: Rapid Identification from Positive Blood Culture by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. A Case Report and Literature Review
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(1), 8-11; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6368 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 147
Abstract
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid) caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type [...] Read more.
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid) caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type of disease has been previously associated with a high incidence of endocarditis. Here we report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia in a 74- year-old man, probably started from an erysipeloid form, in which endocarditis did not develop. This case presents some particular and uncommon features: i) no correlation with animal source; ii) correlation between bacteremia and erysipeloid lesion; iii) absence of endocarditis. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed to obtain a rapid identification (within 4 hours from bottle positivity) of E. rhusiopathiae. Together with direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing, this approach could improve the rate of appropriate therapy for bloodstream infections due to this fastidious pathogen. Full article
Case Report
First Report of Acute Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Rothia Mucilaginosa after Phacoemulsification
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(1), 6-7; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6320 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 135
Abstract
We aimed at reporting the first case of rapidly progressive acute postoperative endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. An immunocompetent patient manifested endophthalmitis signs 48 hours after an uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A bacteria [...] Read more.
We aimed at reporting the first case of rapidly progressive acute postoperative endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an immunocompetent patient caused by Rothia mucilaginosa. An immunocompetent patient manifested endophthalmitis signs 48 hours after an uncomplicated cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A bacteria of the family Micrococcaceae was cultured in the vitreous biopsy, namely R. mucilaginosa. The patient did not show a favorable clinical response after vitrectomy and systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. The patient’s eye was very painful, and consequently, it deemed necessary to perform an evisceration. R. mucilaginosa may be an aggressive etiologic agent for postoperative endophthalmitis. Although the isolated R. mucilaginosa was susceptible to empirical treatment, it was impossible to control the infection with standard treatment, probably due to its ability to create a biofilm around the intraocular lens. Full article
Case Report
Thoracic Actinomycosis: A Rare Occurrence
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(1), 4-5; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.5963 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 107
Abstract
Actinomyces israelii is a branching anaerobic bacilli microorganism that can be identified as normal flora throughout various portions of the human alimentary canal. It is crucial to establish a diagnosis as treatment will vary depending on the clinical form of the disease. We [...] Read more.
Actinomyces israelii is a branching anaerobic bacilli microorganism that can be identified as normal flora throughout various portions of the human alimentary canal. It is crucial to establish a diagnosis as treatment will vary depending on the clinical form of the disease. We report a case of a 78-year-old man who initially presented with an acute onset of respiratory distress displayed contrast leakage on computed tomography from the site of a previously inserted esophageal stent for an unsuccessful surgical repair of an esophageal rupture. In addition to the contrast leakage, the presence of a bronchopulmonary fistula imaging prompted the need for further investigation. Our patient was empirically treated with antibiotics and obtained blood cultures, which returned positive A. israelii. Full article
Brief Report
Interleukin-6 Kinetics Can Be Useful for Early Treatment Monitoring of Severe Bacterial Sepsis and Septic Shock
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2016, 8(1), 1-3; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2016.6213 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 104
Abstract
Early appropriate anti-microbial therapy is necessary to improve outcomes of septic patients. We describe 20 case histories of patients with severe bacterial sepsis regarding kinetics of several biomarkers. We found that interleukin-6 is able to predict survival and might be able to evaluate [...] Read more.
Early appropriate anti-microbial therapy is necessary to improve outcomes of septic patients. We describe 20 case histories of patients with severe bacterial sepsis regarding kinetics of several biomarkers. We found that interleukin-6 is able to predict survival and might be able to evaluate appropriateness of anti-microbial therapy. Full article
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