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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2011) – 10 articles

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Article
Gender Inequities in Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for HIV Infection and Control in Lagos State, Nigeria
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 30-36; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.1049 - 03 Aug 2011
Cited by 4
Abstract
Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and [...] Read more.
Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. Full article
Article
Advances in the Prevention of Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS Among Women in the United States
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 20-29; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2362 - 24 Jun 2011
Cited by 8
Abstract
Despite recent advances in testing and treatment, the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has remained stagnant with an estimated 56,300 new infections every year. Women account for an increasing proportion of the epidemic. The vulnerability of women to HIV stems from [...] Read more.
Despite recent advances in testing and treatment, the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has remained stagnant with an estimated 56,300 new infections every year. Women account for an increasing proportion of the epidemic. The vulnerability of women to HIV stems from both increased biologic susceptibility to heterosexual transmission and also the social, economic, and structural disadvantages they often confront. This review describes the main reasons for the increased vulnerability of U.S. women to HIV transmission with particular emphasis on specific high-risk groups including: non-Hispanic blacks, women who use drugs, women with a history of incarceration, and victims of intimate partner violence. Although behavioral approaches to HIV prevention may be effective, pragmatic implementation is often difficult, especially for women who lack sociocultural capital to negotiate condoms with their male partners. Recent advances in HIV prevention show promise in terms of female-initiated interventions. These notably include female condoms, non-specific vaginal microbicides, and antiretroviral oral and vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis. In this review, we will present evidence in support of these new female-initiated interventions while also emphasizing the importance of advocacy and the political support for these scientific advances to be successful. Full article
Article
Men Who have Sex with Men in China have Relatively Low Numbers of Sexual Partners
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 46-51; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.e10 - 23 Jun 2011
Cited by 8
Abstract
HIV prevalence is increasing rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China and potentially associated with the number of male sexual partners that each man has on average. This study estimates the distribution of the number of male sexual partners [...] Read more.
HIV prevalence is increasing rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China and potentially associated with the number of male sexual partners that each man has on average. This study estimates the distribution of the number of male sexual partners among Chinese MSM through a comprehensive review of English and Chinese published literature. The overall median number of male sexual partners of Chinese MSM in the past 6 months China was estimated to be 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-6.9) sexual partners in the past 6-month and 12-month periods respectively. An estimated 31% of sexual partners of MSM in China are regular partners, 54% are casual partners, and 16% are commercial partners. The reported numbers of sexual partners has not changed over time during the past decade. The numbers of male sexual partners reported by Chinese MSM is consistently lower than other settings and may not be sufficient to explain the recent rapid increase in HIV prevalence. Full article
Brief Report
The First Reported Case of Bartonella Endocarditis in Thailand
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 44-45; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2440 - 01 Jun 2011
Cited by 5
Abstract
Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying [...] Read more.
Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques. Full article
Review
Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Artemisinins in Pregnancy
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 37-43; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2412 - 27 May 2011
Cited by 6
Abstract
Malaria in pregnancy can lead to serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Access to the most effective antimalarials in pregnancy is essential. Resistance to current therapies is high for all antimalarial therapies except artemisinins. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is current the first line [...] Read more.
Malaria in pregnancy can lead to serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Access to the most effective antimalarials in pregnancy is essential. Resistance to current therapies is high for all antimalarial therapies except artemisinins. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is current the first line of malaria treatment recommended by the WHO for children, adults and pregnant women in second or third trimester. Due to potential embryotoxicity of artemisinins identified in animal studies, artemisinins are not considered safe for use in first trimester of pregnancy. Artemisinins are more rapidly metabolized in pregnant women, but this does not seem to reduce efficacy. Most studies show very high cure rates for pregnant women. Areas for further research include the safety profile in first trimester of pregnancy, the effect of HIV infection on artemisinin use in pregnancy, the relationship between the pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy, and the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy.
Full article
Article
Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: Comparison of Four Methods on Specimens Collected in Cary-Blair Transport Medium and tcdB PCR on Fresh Versus Frozen Samples
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 15-19; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2331 - 05 May 2011
Cited by 13
Abstract
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxigenic strains of C. difficile is primarily a nosocomial infection with increasing prevalence. Stool specimens are typically collected in Cary-Blair transport medium to maximize culture-based detection of common stool pathogens. The goal of this study was to [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxigenic strains of C. difficile is primarily a nosocomial infection with increasing prevalence. Stool specimens are typically collected in Cary-Blair transport medium to maximize culture-based detection of common stool pathogens. The goal of this study was to establish an analytically accurate and efficient algorithm for the detection of CDI in our patient population using samples collected in Cary-Blair transport medium. In addition, we wished to determine whether the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was affected by freezing samples before testing. Using 357 specimens, we compared four methods: enzyme immunoassay for the antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (Wampole™ C. DIFF CHEK-60 Assay, GDH), toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay (Remel ProSpecT™ C. difficile Toxin A/B Microplate Assay, Toxin EIA), cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (Bartels™ Cytotoxicity Assay, CT), and real-time PCR targeting the toxin B gene (BD GeneOhm™ Cdiff Assay, PCR). The analytic sensitivity and specificity of each as determined using a combined gold standard were as follows: GDH, 100% and 93.2%; Toxin EIA, 82.9% and 82.9%; CT, 100% and 100%; PCR (performed on frozen specimens) 74.3% and 96.6%; respectively. However, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR improved to 100% when performed on 50 fresh stool samples collected in Cary-Blair. While CT remains a sensitive method for the detection of CDI, GDH offers an excellent initial screening method to rule out CDI. While the performance of each assay did not appear to be affected by collection in Cary-Blair medium, PCR performed better using fresh specimens. Full article
Review
Trichomonas Vaginalis Screening and Prevention in order to Impact the HIV Pandemic: Isn’t it Time We Take this Infection Seriously?
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 12-14; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2349 - 11 Apr 2011
Cited by 3
Abstract
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the second most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. It is associated with significant morbidity in women: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), concurrent vaginitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), post-operative infection, and pregnancy complications. TV infection has been [...] Read more.
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the second most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. It is associated with significant morbidity in women: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), concurrent vaginitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), post-operative infection, and pregnancy complications. TV infection has been implicated in HIV acquisition and transmission in men and women. There are multiple mechanisms to explain this association. TV is not routinely screened for in asymptomatic patients; however, infected individuals are most often asymptomatic. Due to the association with the spread of HIV infection, screening should not be limited to symptomatic patients or those seeking treatment for STIs. There are a variety of tests available to detect TV. Treatment of TV has demonstrated lower rates of HIV acquisition in at risk women. In HIV positive men and women, treatment decreases the amount of genital HIV shedding and subsequent infectivity. Initiation of an effective TV screening and treatment program in HIV positive and HIV susceptible populations may limit further transmission of HIV. Full article
Article
Usefulness of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Dot-Blot Assay, Used with Ziehl-Neelsen Staining, for the Rapid and Conveni­ent Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Human Immuno­deficiency Virus-Seropositive and -Seronegative Individuals
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 7-11; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.e3 - 24 Mar 2011
Cited by 5
Abstract
There are scarce data regarding the value of molecular tests, when used in parallel with classical tools, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) under field conditions, especially in regions with a high burden of TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. We evaluated the usefulness [...] Read more.
There are scarce data regarding the value of molecular tests, when used in parallel with classical tools, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) under field conditions, especially in regions with a high burden of TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. We evaluated the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction dot-blot assay (PCR) used in parallel with Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis, in a TB-HIV reference hospital. All sputum samples from 277 patients were tested by ZN, culture, and PCR. Performances were assessed individually, in parallel, for HIV status, history of anti-TB treatment, and in different simulated TB prevalence rates. Overall, the PTB prevalence was 46% (128/277); in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals, PTB prevalence was 54% (40/74); the ZN technique had a lower sensitivity (SE) in the HIV+ group than in the HIV-seronegative (HIV–) group (43% vs. 68%; Fisher test, P<0.05); and the SE of PCR was not affected by HIV status (Fisher test; P=0.46). ZN, in parallel with PCR, presented the following results: i) among all PTB suspects, SE of 90%, specificity (SP) of 84%, likelihood ratio (LR)+ of 5.65 and LR– of 0.12; ii) in HIV– subjects: SE of 92%, LR– of 0.10; iii) in not previously treated cases: SE of 90%, LR– of 0.11; iv) in TB, prevalence rates of 5-20%; negative predictive values (NPV) of 98-99%. ZN used in parallel with PCR showed an improvement in SE, LR–, and NPV, and may offer a novel approach in ruling out PTB cases, especially in not previously treated HIV– individuals, attended in hospitals in developing nations. Full article
Review
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Epidemic in Mainland China Dissected
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 3-6; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.1794 - 18 Feb 2011
Cited by 6
Abstract
This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned [...] Read more.
This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large geographical extent but clustered in two areas: first in Guangdong Province, and about 3 months later in Beijing with its surrounding areas. Reanalysis of all available epidemiological data resulted in a total of 5327 probable cases of SARS, of whom 343 died. The resulting case fatality ratio (CFR) of 6.4% was less than half of that in other SARS-affected countries or areas, and this difference could only partly be explained by younger age of patients and higher number of community acquired infections. Analysis of the impact of interventions demonstrated that strong political commitment and a centrally coordinated response was the most important factor to control SARS in mainland China, whereas the most stringent control measures were all initiated when the epidemic was already dying down. The long-term economic consequence of the epidemic was limited, much consumption was merely postponed, but for Beijing irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector were considerable. An important finding from a cohort study was that many former SARS patients currently suffer from avascular osteo­necrosis, as a consequence of the treatment with corticosteroids during their infection. The SARS epidemic provided valuable information and lessons relevant in controlling outbreaks of newly emerging infectious diseases, and has led to fundamental reforms of the Chinese health system. In particular, a comprehensive nation-wide internet-based disease reporting system was established. Full article
Brief Report
Is Incidental Recovery of Yeast from Enteric Pathogen Stool Cultures Obtained from Hospitalized Patients Clinically Significant?
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2203 - 08 Feb 2011
Cited by 1
Abstract
A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate gastrointestinal colonization with yeast as a predictor of invasive candidiasis (IC) in patients who underwent an enteric pathogen test. No significant association was detected between gastrointestinal colonization and IC. However, gastrointestinal colonization with yeast was [...] Read more.
A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate gastrointestinal colonization with yeast as a predictor of invasive candidiasis (IC) in patients who underwent an enteric pathogen test. No significant association was detected between gastrointestinal colonization and IC. However, gastrointestinal colonization with yeast was associated with increased antimicrobial exposure and median length of hospitalization. Full article
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