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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 2, Issue 1 (February 2010) – 8 articles

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Article
IRAK-M Regulation and Function in Host Defense and Immune Homeostasis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 22-29; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e9 - 30 Jun 2010
Cited by 43
Abstract
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) of the innate immune system sense a wide range of pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of certain PRRs can induce production of pro-inflammatory mediators that facilitate effective clearance of pathogen. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well described [...] Read more.
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) of the innate immune system sense a wide range of pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of certain PRRs can induce production of pro-inflammatory mediators that facilitate effective clearance of pathogen. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well described group of PRRs that belong to the TLR/Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily. However, TLR/IL-1R induction of pro-inflammatory mediators must be regulated to prevent excessive inflammation and tissue damage. One molecule of recent interest that is known to inhibit TLR/IL-1R signaling is interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK)-M, also known as IRAK-3. IRAK-M is expressed in a number of immune and epithelial cells types, and through its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, IRAK-M can regulate immune homeostasis and tolerance in a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Furthermore, use of IRAK-M deficient animals has increased our understanding of the importance of IRAK-M in regulating immune responsiveness to a variety of pathogens. Although IRAK-M expression is typically induced through TLR signaling, IRAK-M can also be expressed in response to various endogenous and exogenous soluble factors as well as cell surface and intracellular signaling molecules. This review will focus on clinical scenarios in which expression of IRAK-M is beneficial (as in early sepsis) and those situations where IRAK-M expression is harmful to the host (as in cancer and following bone marrow transplant). There is strong rationale for therapeutic targeting of IRAK-M for clinical benefit. However, effective targeting will require a greater understanding of the transcriptional regulation of this gene. Full article
Article
Mortality in Hospitalized Older Adults Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection at a District Hospital
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 19-21; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1824 - 21 Jun 2010
Cited by 7
Abstract
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital acquired infectious diarrhea in the developed world and has re-emerged in recent years with apparent greater morbidity and mortality. Despite this, there is little recent published data from the UK concerning associated mortality. We [...] Read more.
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital acquired infectious diarrhea in the developed world and has re-emerged in recent years with apparent greater morbidity and mortality. Despite this, there is little recent published data from the UK concerning associated mortality. We performed a case control study at a UK district general hospital of 66 hospitalized patients over the age of 65 years with C. difficile infection compared to 3-5 controls matched for age, sex and minimum length of stay. We found a significant excess mortality of 11.5% at seven days, 26.2% at 30 days, 38.1% at 90 days and 41.4% at 180 days. C. difficile infection in hospitalized elderly patients may contribute to long-term mortality or be a marker of poor prognosis and cases may require more intensive long-term follow up to improve mortality. Full article
Case Report
Invasive Fungal Infections in Endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 9-10; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1281 - 15 Jun 2010
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We [...] Read more.
Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. Full article
Case Report
A Rare Case of Primary Tuberculosis Infection with Concurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 14-15; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1723 - 26 Mar 2010
Abstract
Coexistence of parotid tuberculosis along with a benign parotid tumor is a rare entity with only nine cases reported in the literature. We report here a case of primary parotid tuberculosis with concurrent pleomorphic adenoma in a 51-year-old female. Full article
Case Report
Tsukamurella Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in a Pediatric Patient with Pulmonary Hypertension
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 11-13; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1649 - 17 Mar 2010
Abstract
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are important complications in patients with long-term indwelling central venous catheters. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old male with pulmonary hypertension treated with continuous treprostinil infusion, who presented with a CR-BSI caused by a Tsukamurella [...] Read more.
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are important complications in patients with long-term indwelling central venous catheters. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old male with pulmonary hypertension treated with continuous treprostinil infusion, who presented with a CR-BSI caused by a Tsukamurella species. This case highlights the potential for this unusual organism to cause infection in immunocompetent patients. Full article
Case Report
Corynebacterium macginleyi Isolated from A Corneal Ulcer
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 7-8; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1568 - 17 Feb 2010
Cited by 9
Abstract
We report the isolation of Corynebacterium macginleyi from the corneal ulcer culture of a patient, later enrolled in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcer Trial (SCUT). To our knowledge this is the first published report from North America of the recovery of C. macginleyi [...] Read more.
We report the isolation of Corynebacterium macginleyi from the corneal ulcer culture of a patient, later enrolled in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcer Trial (SCUT). To our knowledge this is the first published report from North America of the recovery of C. macginleyi from a serious ocular infection. Full article
Article
Ochrobactrum anthropi Septic Arthritis: Case Report and Implications in Orthopedic Infections
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 5-6; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e2 - 17 Feb 2010
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a rare cause of orthopedic infections. We report the second case of Ochrobactrum anthrop septic arthritis in the literature. Our case highlights the ability of Ochrobactrum anthropi to cause septic arthritis and its relevance in the field of [...] Read more.
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a rare cause of orthopedic infections. We report the second case of Ochrobactrum anthrop septic arthritis in the literature. Our case highlights the ability of Ochrobactrum anthropi to cause septic arthritis and its relevance in the field of orthopedic infections. Full article
Article
In vitro Activity of Tigecycline Against Patient Isolates Collected during Phase 3 Clinical Trials for Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(1), 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e1 - 02 Feb 2010
Cited by 3
Abstract
The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against 819 baseline pathogens isolated from 383 patients enrolled in the phase 3 clinical trial investigating the efficacy of tigecycline in hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). The trials were global, enrolling patients in 27 countries. Tigecycline [...] Read more.
The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against 819 baseline pathogens isolated from 383 patients enrolled in the phase 3 clinical trial investigating the efficacy of tigecycline in hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). The trials were global, enrolling patients in 27 countries. Tigecycline was active against the most prevalent pathogens in HAP, including gram-positive and gram-negative strains (90% of MICs ≤2 μg/mL for the entire collection). The spectrum of activity of tigecycline included important pathogens such as Staphylo- coccus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus), Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus complex, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Enterobacter cloacae. As reported previously, a few genera, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Proteeae, were generally less susceptible to tigecycline by comparison to other gram-negative pathogens. The excellent in vitro, expanded, broad-spectrum activity of tigecycline in the clinical isolates confirmed the potential utility of tigecycline for pathogens associated with with hospital acquired pneumonia infections. Full article
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