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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 2, Issue 2 (August 2010) – 9 articles

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Review
Selenium Deficiency and HIV Infection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 56-63; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e18 - 07 Dec 2010
Cited by 12
Abstract
Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium [...] Read more.
Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection. Full article
Brief Report
An Outbreak of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis at an Outpatient Ophthalmology Clinic
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 52-55; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e17 - 07 Dec 2010
Cited by 8
Abstract
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is an acute eye infection caused by adenovirus. We investigated an outbreak of EKC at an outpatient ophthalmology practice in the context of a suspected community wide increase in EKC activity. A site visit was made to the facility reporting [...] Read more.
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is an acute eye infection caused by adenovirus. We investigated an outbreak of EKC at an outpatient ophthalmology practice in the context of a suspected community wide increase in EKC activity. A site visit was made to the facility reporting the outbreak. A line list was created of patients clinically diagnosed with EKC at the practice during the previous 5 months. A questionnaire was faxed to all other licensed ophthalmologists in the county regarding recent EKC activity in their facility. Descriptive data analyses were conducted. The outbreak facility reported 37 patients clinically diagnosed with EKC during the previous 5 months. In addition, the single ophthalmologist at the practice also had symptoms compatible with EKC during the outbreak period. Specimens were collected on 4 patients and all were positive for adenovirus serotype 8. Forty percent of ophthalmologists surveyed in the county saw at least one EKC patient in the previous 3 months, and 20% reported a perceived increase in EKC activity in recent months over normal seasonal patterns. The outbreak at the facility likely began as part of a widespread community increase in EKC that may have been amplified at the facility through nosocomial transmission. Medical providers experiencing increases in EKC activity above seasonally expected norms should contact their public health department for assistance with etiologic diagnoses and outbreak control. Full article
Editorial
The First Year of Infectious Disease Reports
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.2138 - 03 Nov 2010
Abstract
Welcome readers to Infectious Disease Reports (IDR)[...] Full article
Brief Report
Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti Hemodialysis Graft Infection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 47-48; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1939 - 02 Nov 2010
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hemodialysis graft infections typically occur as a result of contamination by skin flora at the time of insertion or become secondarily infected after high-grade bacteremia. Infection of implanted vascular devices with filamentous fungi is rare. We report a case of infection of an [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis graft infections typically occur as a result of contamination by skin flora at the time of insertion or become secondarily infected after high-grade bacteremia. Infection of implanted vascular devices with filamentous fungi is rare. We report a case of infection of an implanted polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis graft with Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti that did not grow in cultures of tissue but was identified by molecular means. Full article
Article
High HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Remote Community in the Rwenzori Region of Western Uganda
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 40-46; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1585 - 04 Oct 2010
Cited by 7
Abstract
In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued [...] Read more.
In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (c2=0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. Full article
Article
Rhabdomyolysis after Group C Streptococcal Infection
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 49-50; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.1954 - 01 Oct 2010
Cited by 3
Abstract
We describe a young woman with a group C streptococcal throat infection complicated by rhabdomyolysis. Muscle biopsy from quadriceps was normal, and molecular studies showed no evidence of direct microbial invasion. This is only the second case in which the usually benign group [...] Read more.
We describe a young woman with a group C streptococcal throat infection complicated by rhabdomyolysis. Muscle biopsy from quadriceps was normal, and molecular studies showed no evidence of direct microbial invasion. This is only the second case in which the usually benign group C streptococcus has been linked with muscle destruction. Full article
Article
Ockham’s Razor is not so Sharp
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 30-32; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e10 - 23 Aug 2010
Cited by 2
Abstract
A 39-year-old male with newly diagnosed HIV had cavitary pneumonia initially attributed to Pneumocystis jirovecii but actually caused by Rhodococcus equi. After neurological deterior­ation, he was found to have intracerebral lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This case underscores the inability to [...] Read more.
A 39-year-old male with newly diagnosed HIV had cavitary pneumonia initially attributed to Pneumocystis jirovecii but actually caused by Rhodococcus equi. After neurological deterior­ation, he was found to have intracerebral lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This case underscores the inability to rely on the search for a unifying diagnosis (Ockham’s Razor) in HIV-infected patients. Full article
Article
Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Subtle Differences but Comparable Severity
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 35-39; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e12 - 11 Aug 2010
Cited by 10
Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered virus that causes respiratory illness in children that can lead to hospitalization. Our study was undertaken to further understand hMPV-associated illness, compare clinical characteristics of hMPV and respira­tory syncytial virus (RSV), and establish the utility of [...] Read more.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered virus that causes respiratory illness in children that can lead to hospitalization. Our study was undertaken to further understand hMPV-associated illness, compare clinical characteristics of hMPV and respira­tory syncytial virus (RSV), and establish the utility of routine screening for hMPV. We retrospectively identified hMPV-associated illnesses described among children with respiratory symptoms admitted to a tertiary care center in southeast Michigan during the 2006-2007 re­spiratory viral season. A convenience sample of 256 nasopharyngeal specimens was subjected to nucleic acid extraction and amplification to identify those specimens positive for hMPV. A medical record review was undertaken to retrieve demographic and clinical data of patients with hMPV, comparing them to RSV-positive patients and patients evaluated for respiratory symptoms who were negative for hMPV and RSV. We found that hMPV was the second most commonly identified virus after RSV. hMPV-positive patients were older than RSV-positive patients. Among hMPV-positive patients, pneumonia was diagnosed in 37.5% and bronchiolitis in 31.2%, peribronchial cuffing was present on chest radiographs of 37.5%, antibiotic treatment was used in 81.2%, and admission to the ICU was seen in 37.5%. Finally, hMPV-positive patients were more likely to have fever than RSV-positive patients or patients negative for hMPV and RSV. We concluded that hMPV is a major pathogen associated with hospitalization of children and with the same severity of illness as RSV but in a slightly older population. Because of the apparent prevalence and severity of illness, routine screening should be implemented. Full article
Article
Recurrent Cutaneous Abscesses in Two Italian Family Members
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2010, 2(2), 33-34; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2010.e11 - 04 Aug 2010
Cited by 2
Abstract
Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of such mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult since they can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. Absence of pathognomonic [...] Read more.
Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of such mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult since they can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. Absence of pathognomonic clinical signs and variable histological findings often delay diagnosis. We report a case of localized recurrent soft tissue swelling by Mycobacterium marinum in 2 members of the same family. The cases are being reported for their uncommon clinical presentation and the associated etiological agent. Patients recovered completely following therapy with rifampicin 600 mg plus isoniazide 300 mg daily for 45 days. Full article
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