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Open AccessArticle

Implementation Schemes for Electric Bus Fleets at Depots with Optimized Energy Procurements in Virtual Power Plant Operations

1
Department Sustainable Electric Networks and Sources of Energy (SENSE), Technische Universität Berlin, Einsteinufer 11 (EMH-1), D-10587 Berlin, Germany
2
Department Methods for Product Development and Mechatronics (MPM), Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10010005
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
For the purpose of utilizing electric bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regard to providing active energy management at depots, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. The paper examines sophisticated charging strategies with energy procurements in joint market operation. Here, operation procedures and characteristics of a depot including the physical layout and utilization of appropriate charging infrastructure are investigated. A comprehensive model framework for a virtual power plant (VPP) is formulated and developed to integrate electric bus fleets in the power plant portfolio, enabling the provision of power system services. The proposed methodology is verified in numerical analysis by providing optimized dispatch schedules in day-ahead and intraday market operations. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy demand; electric vehicle; modeling, optimization; power management; public transport; smart charging; smart grid; vehicle to grid energy demand; electric vehicle; modeling, optimization; power management; public transport; smart charging; smart grid; vehicle to grid
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Raab, A.F.; Lauth, E.; Strunz, K.; Göhlich, D. Implementation Schemes for Electric Bus Fleets at Depots with Optimized Energy Procurements in Virtual Power Plant Operations. World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10, 5.

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