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Future Internet, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Global mobility and unique talents require companies to adopt alternative approaches to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessPerspective Robotics Construction Kits: From “Objects to Think with” to “Objects to Think and to Emote with”
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020021
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how these relate to the mind and body. More specifically, by using robots such as the LEGO Mindstorm construction kits—which allow users to both construct the body of the robot and to provide it with a behavioural repertory—children have the opportunity to visualize (and manipulate) the relationship between the robot’s body and mind. This allows them to simulate “embodied emotional minds” and to reflect on new neuroscientific concepts regarding body-mind and cognition-emotion relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaging in Interaction with Robots)
Open AccessArticle Blockchain and Smart Contracts for Insurance: Is the Technology Mature Enough?
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020020
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology
[...] Read more.
Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology that is now largely discussed by media. In this scenario, the risk to adopt it in the wake of enthusiasm, without objectively judging its actual added value is rather high. Insurance is one the sectors that, among others, started to carefully investigate the possibilities of blockchain. For this specific sector, however, the hype cycle shows that the technology is still in the innovation trigger phase, meaning that the spectrum of possible applications has not been fully explored yet. Insurers, as with many other companies not necessarily active only in the financial sector, are currently requested to make a hard decision, that is, whether to adopt blockchain or not, and they will only know if they were right in 3–5 years. The objective of this paper is to support actors involved in this decision process by illustrating what a blockchain is, analyzing its advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing several use cases taken from the insurance sector, which could easily be extended to other domains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Virtual Career Fairs: Perspectives from Norwegian Recruiters and Exhibitors
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020019
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of
[...] Read more.
The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of Norwegian recruiters and exhibitors. The results of the data collection can be summarized in the form of themes that relate to web analytics, web services and optimization. The benefits of virtual fairs pertain to the (a) visibility and branding; (b) costs; and (c) analytics-based customization. Challenges of virtual career fairs pertain to the (a) lack of online engagement, (b) preparation and staffing costs; (c) lack of guidelines; (d) talent access and identification; (e) security and infrastructure; (f) long-term planning; (g) and inter-dependencies. The discussion summarizes the implications of branding and recruitment and the value they add to business, also noting how context effects may come into play. The article concludes by exploring the possibility that virtual fairs will complement or become the new standard in recruitment and outlines future avenues for research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue u- and e- Service, Science and Technology)
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Open AccessEditorial Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020018
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Currently, at the dawn of 5G networks, and the era of the Internet-of-Things, wireless and mobile networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous [...]
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Trustworthiness of Face Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location Using Neural Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020017
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially
[...] Read more.
Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Trust-Based Scheme for Secure and Quality of Service Routing in MANETs
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020016
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Due to the dynamism of topology, sharing of bandwidth and constraint of resources in wireless nodes, the provision of quality of service (QoS) for routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents a great challenge. Security is another crucial aspect of providing QoS
[...] Read more.
Due to the dynamism of topology, sharing of bandwidth and constraint of resources in wireless nodes, the provision of quality of service (QoS) for routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents a great challenge. Security is another crucial aspect of providing QoS since the existence of malicious nodes present all kinds of threats to MANETs. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed for protecting MANETs, most of the solutions are only effective for a particular kind of attacks or provide security at the cost of sacrificing QoS. In this paper, we propose a trust-based secure QoS routing scheme by combining social and QoS trust. The primary approach of the proposed scheme relies on mitigating nodes that exhibit various packet forwarding misbehavior and on discovering the path that ensures reliable communication through the trust mechanism. The scheme would select the best forwarding node based on packet forwarding behavior as well as capability in terms of QoS parameters, such as residual energy, channel quality, link quality, etc. We will present an adversary model for packet dropping attack against which we evaluate the proposed scheme. Simulation experiment using Network Simulator-2 (NS2) and under various network conditions show that mixing social and QoS trust parameters can greatly improve security and quality of service routing in terms of overhead, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020015
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT) with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban
[...] Read more.
In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT) with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Vehicle to Vehicle Communication Protocols for VANETs in the Urban Environment
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020014
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have been gaining significant attention from the research community due to their increasing importance for building an intelligent transportation system. The characteristics of VANETs, such as high mobility, network partitioning, intermittent connectivity and obstacles in city environments, make routing
[...] Read more.
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have been gaining significant attention from the research community due to their increasing importance for building an intelligent transportation system. The characteristics of VANETs, such as high mobility, network partitioning, intermittent connectivity and obstacles in city environments, make routing a challenging task. Due to these characteristics of VANETs, the performance of a routing protocol is degraded. The position-based routing is considered to be the most significant approach in VANETs. In this paper, we present a brief review of most significant position based unicast routing protocols designed for vehicle to vehicle communications in the urban environment. We provide them with their working features for exchanging information between vehicular nodes. We describe their pros and cons. This study also provides a comparison of the vehicle to vehicle communication based routing protocols. The comparative study is based on some significant factors such as mobility, traffic density, forwarding techniques and method of junction selection mechanism, and strategy used to handle a local optimum situation. It also provides the simulation based study of existing dynamic junction selection routing protocols and a static junction selection routing protocol. It provides a profound insight into the routing techniques suggested in this area and the most valuable solutions to advance VANETs. More importantly, it can be used as a source of references to other researchers in finding literature that is relevant to routing in VANETs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Push Attack: Binding Virtual and Real Identities Using Mobile Push Notifications
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020013
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.). Despite the
[...] Read more.
Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.). Despite the cryptography used to protect these communication channels, the strict temporal binding between the actions that trigger the notifications and the reception of the notification messages in the mobile device may represent a privacy issue. In this work, we present the push notification attack designed to bind the physical owners of mobile devices with their virtual identities, even if pseudonyms are used. In an online attack, an active attacker triggers a push notification and captures the notification packets that transit in the network. In an offline attack, a passive attacker correlates the social network activity of a user with the received push notification. The push notification attack bypasses the standard ways of protecting user privacy based on the network layer by operating at the application level. It requires no additional software on the victim’s mobile device. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Improved Adaptive Silence Period Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020012
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM) has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM). However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),
[...] Read more.
In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM) has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM). However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU). Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM) algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Announcing the 2018 Future Internet Travel Award for PhD Students
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10020011
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the fields of Internet 11 technologies and the information society, Future Internet welcomed applications for the 2018 Future 12 Internet Travel Award for PhD students.[...] Full article
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