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Viruses 2017, 9(11), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/v9110346

Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Biological Processes

1
Department of Biology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Subversion of Transcriptional Control)
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Abstract

It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. The mechanisms used by certain viruses to dysregulate the host cell through manipulation of epigenetic processes and the role of cellular cofactors such as BRD4 that are known to be involved in epigenetic regulation of host cell pathways will also be covered. Specifically, this review will focus on the role of epigenetic regulation in maintaining viral episomes through the generation of chromatin, temporally controlling transcription from viral genes during the course of an infection, regulating latency and the switch to a lytic infection, and global dysregulation of cellular function. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetic; DNA virus; regulation; gene expression; histone modifications; nucleosomes; DNA methylation; ChIP-Seq; latency epigenetic; DNA virus; regulation; gene expression; histone modifications; nucleosomes; DNA methylation; ChIP-Seq; latency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Balakrishnan, L.; Milavetz, B. Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Biological Processes. Viruses 2017, 9, 346.

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