Next Article in Journal
Target Product Profile Analysis of COVID-19 Vaccines in Phase III Clinical Trials and Beyond: An Early 2021 Perspective
Next Article in Special Issue
Addressing Antiretroviral Drug Resistance with Host-Targeting Drugs—First Steps towards Developing a Host-Targeting HIV-1 Assembly Inhibitor
Previous Article in Journal
NMR Experiments Shed New Light on Glycan Recognition by Human and Murine Norovirus Capsid Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New Generation of Functional Tagged Proteins for HIV Fluorescence Imaging
 
 
Review

Interactions of HIV-1 Capsid with Host Factors and Their Implications for Developing Novel Therapeutics

by 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
2
Center for Immunity and Immunotherapies, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ester Ballana Guix
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030417
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Capsid-Targeting Antivirals and Host Factors)
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion contains a conical shell, termed capsid, encasing the viral RNA genome. After cellular entry of the virion, the capsid is released and ensures the protection and delivery of the HIV-1 genome to the host nucleus for integration. The capsid relies on many virus–host factor interactions which are regulated spatiotemporally throughout the course of infection. In this paper, we will review the current understanding of the highly dynamic HIV-1 capsid–host interplay during the early stages of viral replication, namely intracellular capsid trafficking after viral fusion, nuclear import, uncoating, and integration of the viral genome into host chromatin. Conventional anti-retroviral therapies primarily target HIV-1 enzymes. Insights of capsid structure have resulted in a first-in-class, long-acting capsid-targeting inhibitor, GS-6207 (Lenacapavir). This inhibitor binds at the interface between capsid protein subunits, a site known to bind host factors, interferes with capsid nuclear import, HIV particle assembly, and ordered assembly. Our review will highlight capsid structure, the host factors that interact with capsid, and high-throughput screening techniques, specifically genomic and proteomic approaches, that have been and can be used to identify host factors that interact with capsid. Better structural and mechanistic insights into the capsid–host factor interactions will significantly inform the understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and the development of capsid-centric antiretroviral therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1 capsid; host factors; capsid-targeting inhibitors; high-throughput screening techniques; antiretroviral therapeutics HIV-1 capsid; host factors; capsid-targeting inhibitors; high-throughput screening techniques; antiretroviral therapeutics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhuang, S.; Torbett, B.E. Interactions of HIV-1 Capsid with Host Factors and Their Implications for Developing Novel Therapeutics. Viruses 2021, 13, 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030417

AMA Style

Zhuang S, Torbett BE. Interactions of HIV-1 Capsid with Host Factors and Their Implications for Developing Novel Therapeutics. Viruses. 2021; 13(3):417. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030417

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhuang, Shentian, and Bruce E. Torbett. 2021. "Interactions of HIV-1 Capsid with Host Factors and Their Implications for Developing Novel Therapeutics" Viruses 13, no. 3: 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030417

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop