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Open AccessArticle

Distinct Lineages of Feline Parvovirus Associated with Epizootic Outbreaks in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates

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Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
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School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
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RSPCA NSW, Yagoona, NSW 2199, Australia
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Lort Smith Animal Hospital, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
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SPCA Wellington, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
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Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
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School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, 70121 Bari, Italy
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Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life & Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121155
Received: 17 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV). We investigated simultaneous outbreaks of FPL between 2014 and 2018 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where FPL outbreaks had not been reported for several decades. Case data from 989 cats and clinical samples from additional 113 cats were obtained to determine the cause of the outbreaks and epidemiological factors involved. Most cats with FPL were shelter-housed, 9 to 10 weeks old at diagnosis, unvaccinated, had not completed a primary vaccination series or had received vaccinations noncompliant with current guidelines. Analysis of parvoviral VP2 sequence data confirmed that all FPL cases were caused by FPV and not CPV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these outbreaks was caused by a distinct FPV, with two virus lineages present in eastern Australia and virus movement between different geographical locations. Viruses from the UAE outbreak formed a lineage of unknown origin. FPV vaccine virus was detected in the New Zealand cases, highlighting the difficulty of distinguishing the co-incidental shedding of vaccine virus in vaccinated cats. Inadequate vaccination coverage in shelter-housed cats was a common factor in all outbreaks, likely precipitating the multiple re-emergence of infection events. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnivore protoparvovirus; feline panleukopenia; canine parvovirus; outbreaks; infectious enteritis carnivore protoparvovirus; feline panleukopenia; canine parvovirus; outbreaks; infectious enteritis
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Van Brussel, K.; Carrai, M.; Lin, C.; Kelman, M.; Setyo, L.; Aberdein, D.; Brailey, J.; Lawler, M.; Maher, S.; Plaganyi, I.; Lewis, E.; Hawkswell, A.; Allison, A.B.; Meers, J.; Martella, V.; Beatty, J.A.; Holmes, E.C.; Decaro, N.; Barrs, V.R. Distinct Lineages of Feline Parvovirus Associated with Epizootic Outbreaks in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates. Viruses 2019, 11, 1155.

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