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Open AccessArticle

Environmental Contamination and Hygienic Measures After Feline Calicivirus Field Strain Infections of Cats in a Research Facility

1
Clinical Laboratory, Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services, and Center for Clinical Studies, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Medical Research Council, University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100958
Received: 27 July 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) can cause painful oral ulcerations, salivation, gingivitis/stomatitis, fever and depression in infected cats; highly virulent virus variants can lead to fatal epizootic outbreaks. Viral transmission occurs directly or indirectly via fomites. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and viability of FCV in the environment after sequential oronasal infections of specified pathogen-free cats with two FCV field strains in a research facility. Replicating virus was detected in saliva swabs from all ten cats after the first and in four out of ten cats after the second FCV exposure using virus isolation to identify FCV shedders. In the environment, where cleaning, but no disinfection took place, FCV viral RNA was detectable using RT-qPCR on all tested items and surfaces, including cat hair. However, only very limited evidence was found of replicating virus using virus isolation. Viral RNA remained demonstrable for at least 28 days after shedding had ceased in all cats. Disinfection with 5% sodium bicarbonate (and IncidinTM Plus) and barrier measures were effective in that no viral RNA was detectable outside the cat rooms. Our findings are important for any multicat environment to optimize hygienic measures against FCV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline calicivirus; cats; virus isolation; environmental testing; RT-qPCR; disinfection; hygienic measures; sodium bicarbonate; shedding; virus survival; veterinary sciences feline calicivirus; cats; virus isolation; environmental testing; RT-qPCR; disinfection; hygienic measures; sodium bicarbonate; shedding; virus survival; veterinary sciences
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Spiri, A.M.; Meli, M.L.; Riond, B.; Herbert, I.; Hosie, M.J.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R. Environmental Contamination and Hygienic Measures After Feline Calicivirus Field Strain Infections of Cats in a Research Facility. Viruses 2019, 11, 958.

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