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Open AccessArticle

Interferon γ and α Have Differential Effects on SAMHD1, a Potent Antiviral Protein, in Feline Lymphocytes

Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100921
Received: 19 August 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a protein with anti-viral, anti-neoplastic, and anti-inflammatory properties. By degrading cellular dNTPs to constituent deoxynucleoside and free triphosphate, SAMHD1 limits viral DNA synthesis and prevents replication of HIV-1 and some DNA viruses such as HBV, vaccinia, and HSV-1. Recent findings suggest SAMHD1 is broadly active against retroviruses in addition to HIV-1, such as HIV-2, FIV, BIV, and EIAV. Interferons are cytokines produced by lymphocytes and other cells that induce a wide array of antiviral proteins, including some with activity again lentiviruses. Here we evaluated the role of IFNs on SAMHD1 gene expression, transcription, and post-translational modification in a feline CD4+ T cell line (FeTJ) and in primary feline CD4+ T lymphocytes. SAMHD1 mRNA in FetJ cells increased in a dose-related manner in response to IFNγ treatment concurrent with increased nuclear localization and phosphorylation. IFNα treatment induced SAMHD1 mRNA but did not significantly alter SAMHD1 protein detection, phosphorylation, or nuclear translocation. In purified primary feline CD4+ lymphocytes, IL2 supplementation increased SAMHD1 expression, but the addition of IFNγ did not further alter SAMHD1 protein expression or nuclear localization. Thus, the effect of IFNγ on SAMHD1 expression is cell-type dependent, with increased translocation to the nucleus and phosphorylation in FeTJ but not primary CD4+ lymphocytes. These findings imply that while SAMH1 is inducible by IFNγ, overall activity is cell type and compartment specific, which is likely relevant to the establishment of lentiviral reservoirs in quiescent lymphocyte populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: interferon; interleukin; IL2; phosphorylation; pSAMHD1; restriction factor; triphosphohydrolase interferon; interleukin; IL2; phosphorylation; pSAMHD1; restriction factor; triphosphohydrolase
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Asadian, P.; Bienzle, D. Interferon γ and α Have Differential Effects on SAMHD1, a Potent Antiviral Protein, in Feline Lymphocytes. Viruses 2019, 11, 921.

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