Next Article in Journal
Evasion of Innate and Intrinsic Antiviral Pathways by the Zika Virus
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Regulatory T Cell Depletion on NK Cell Responses against Listeria monocytogenes in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Cats
Previous Article in Journal
Gut DNA Virome Diversity and Its Association with Host Bacteria Regulate Inflammatory Phenotype and Neuronal Immunotoxicity in Experimental Gulf War Illness
Previous Article in Special Issue
Environmental Contamination and Hygienic Measures After Feline Calicivirus Field Strain Infections of Cats in a Research Facility
Open AccessArticle

A Novel Hepadnavirus is Associated with Chronic Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cats

1
Department of Pathology Microbiology and Immunology, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Bridge Pathology, Bristol BS7 0BJ, UK
3
Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
4
School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100969
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
In 2015, over 850,000 people died from chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A novel hepatitis B-like virus has recently been identified in domestic cats. The pathogenic potential of domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH), for which 6.5% to 10.8% of pet cats are viremic, is unknown. We evaluated stored formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of diseased and normal feline liver for the presence of DCH using PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). DCH was detected in 43% (6/14) of chronic hepatitis cases and 28% (8/29) of HCCs, whereas cholangitis (n = 6), biliary carcinoma (n = 18) and normal liver (n = 15) all tested negative for DCH. Furthermore, in DCH-associated cases, the histologic features of inflammation and neoplasia, and the viral distribution on ISH were strikingly similar to those seen with HBV-associated disease. Several histological features common in human HBV-associated hepatitis, including piecemeal necrosis and apoptotic bodies, were identified in DCH-positive cases of chronic hepatitis. In two cases of HCC examined, the proliferation index in regions that were ISH-positive was higher than in ISH-negative regions. The intracellular distribution of virus in both hepatitis and HCC demonstrated that viral nucleic acid is present in both nuclear and cytoplasmic forms. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a compelling association between DCH and some cases of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the cat that mirrors features of HBV-associated hepatopathies. Future investigations of viral epidemiology and natural history are needed to establish the impact of DCH on feline health. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline; cancer; viral; cat; HBV; HCC; disease; oncogenesis; pathology; Orthohepadnavirus; hepatology feline; cancer; viral; cat; HBV; HCC; disease; oncogenesis; pathology; Orthohepadnavirus; hepatology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pesavento, P.A.; Jackson, K.; Scase, T.; Tse, T.; Hampson, B.; Munday, J.S.; Barrs, V.R.; Beatty, J.A. A Novel Hepadnavirus is Associated with Chronic Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cats. Viruses 2019, 11, 969.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop