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Forests 2018, 9(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040191

Downed Coarse Woody Debris Dynamics in Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Stands Invaded by Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire)

1
Department of Entomology, 1680 Madison Avenue, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Current Address: The Davey Tree Expert Company, 1500 Mantua Street, Kent, OH 44240, USA
3
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, 1680 Madison Avenue, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
4
Daniel B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, 180 E Green Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA
5
Southern Regional Extension Forestry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Managing Emerald Ash Borer Impacts on Ash Forests)
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Abstract

Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has had major ecological impacts in forests of eastern North America. In 2008 and 2012, we characterized dynamics of downed coarse woody debris (DCWD) in southeastern Michigan, USA near the epicenter of the invasion, where the mortality of white (Fraxinus americana L.), green (F. pennsylvanica Marshall), and black (F. nigra Marshall) ash exceeded 99% by 2009. Percentage of fallen dead ash trees and volume of ash DCWD on the forest floor increased by 76% and 53%, respectively, from 2008 to 2012. Ash and non-ash fell non-randomly to the east and southeast, conforming to prevailing winds. More ash fell by snapping along the bole than by uprooting. By 2012, however, only 31% of ash snags had fallen, indicating that DCWD will increase substantially, especially if it accelerates from the rate of 3.5% per year documented during the study period. Decay of ash DCWD increased over time, with most categorized as minimally decayed (decay classes 1 and 2) in 2008 and more decayed (decay classes 2 and 3) in 2012. As the range of EAB expands, similar patterns of DCWD dynamics are expected in response to extensive ash mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: Agrilus planipennis; ash; coarse woody debris; emerald ash borer; Fraxinus Agrilus planipennis; ash; coarse woody debris; emerald ash borer; Fraxinus
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Perry, K.I.; Herms, D.A.; Klooster, W.S.; Smith, A.; Hartzler, D.M.; Coyle, D.R.; Gandhi, K.J.K. Downed Coarse Woody Debris Dynamics in Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Stands Invaded by Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Forests 2018, 9, 191.

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