Next Issue
Volume 6, January
Previous Issue
Volume 6, November

Table of Contents

Forests, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2015)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4617-4633; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124391 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern). Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern). Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP). However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM)-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4607-4616; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124389 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many [...] Read more.
Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in national trade statistics and we review their sustainability and economic importance in SE Asia. We rank the most important palms according to their versatility, which is an extremely important property, especially for smallholders who practice subsistence agriculture. We conclude by listing a number of recommendations for future research directions based on experiences from the recently completed EU 7th Framework project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
SLAM-Aided Stem Mapping for Forest Inventory with Small-Footprint Mobile LiDAR
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4588-4606; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124390 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3452
Abstract
Accurately retrieving tree stem location distributions is a basic requirement for biomass estimation of forest inventory. Combining Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is a commonly used positioning strategy in most Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems for accurate forest [...] Read more.
Accurately retrieving tree stem location distributions is a basic requirement for biomass estimation of forest inventory. Combining Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is a commonly used positioning strategy in most Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) systems for accurate forest mapping. Coupled with a tactical or consumer grade IMU, GNSS offers a satisfactory solution in open forest environments, for which positioning accuracy better than one decimeter can be achieved. However, for such MLS systems, positioning in a mature and dense forest is still a challenging task because of the loss of GNSS signals attenuated by thick canopy. Most often laser scanning sensors in MLS systems are used for mapping and modelling rather than positioning. In this paper, we investigate a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)-aided positioning solution with point clouds collected by a small-footprint LiDAR. Based on the field test data, we evaluate the potential of SLAM positioning and mapping in forest inventories. The results show that the positioning accuracy in the selected test field is improved by 38% compared to that of a traditional tactical grade IMU + GNSS positioning system in a mature forest environment and, as a result, we are able to produce a unambiguous tree distribution map. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Stocking and Stand Composition on Productivity of Boreal Trembling Aspen-White Spruce Stands
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4573-4587; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124387 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
We analyzed productivity, in terms of periodic annual increment (PAI) in volume, of pure and mixed unmanaged naturally regenerated boreal stands mainly comprised of Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) ranging from 25–260 years old, in Alberta, [...] Read more.
We analyzed productivity, in terms of periodic annual increment (PAI) in volume, of pure and mixed unmanaged naturally regenerated boreal stands mainly comprised of Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) ranging from 25–260 years old, in Alberta, Canada. Measures of density, site occupancy (Reineke’s stand density index-SDI), height, and site quality were evaluated in non-linear regression models aiming to explain the variation in PAI for the separate component species and for the entire stand. Analyses also included examination of the influence of stand composition. Results indicated a positive effect of both density of deciduous trees and of the percentage of deciduous tree stand basal area on trembling aspen volume PAI. White spruce PAI was positively influenced by spruce and aspen basal area, although effects of aspen were small. Height of both aspen and spruce were the most consistent independent variables in the models tested. Maximum PAI was achieved in mixed stands when site occupancy of both species was at its maximum, indicating the ecological combining ability of these two species. Variation in maximum stocking densities (i.e., stockability) has a strong influence on increment in these forests and is a major factor leading to increased productivity of mixed compared to pure stands. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Community Forestry Incentives and Challenges in Mozambique
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4558-4572; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124388 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Although communities have been living within forests and dependent on forest resources, in Mozambique, their role was not formally recognized until the late 1990s. The forest law of 1997 was the first to refer to communities as stakeholders in the forest sector, in [...] Read more.
Although communities have been living within forests and dependent on forest resources, in Mozambique, their role was not formally recognized until the late 1990s. The forest law of 1997 was the first to refer to communities as stakeholders in the forest sector, in line with the national Policy and Strategy for the Development of the Forestry and Wildlife Sector. As a new element, several pilot projects were established during the late 1990s and early 2000s to produce lessons that would inform policy and technical aspects. Community forestry received most of the attention until the first decade of this century, however, it seems that while communities have gained a role in the management of the forest sector, there are still challenges to fully implementing and securing community forestry initiatives. In this study, we document the advent and evolution of community forestry in Mozambique, discuss the conditions for success in community forestry, and discuss two cases of community forestry that have survived over beyond the end of external support. We conclude that devolution and training are the basic incentives, but additional incentives, including diversification of sources of revenue from non-destructive forestry activities, are required to maintain the stability of community forestry over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Incentives and Constraints of Community and Smallholder Forestry)
Open AccessArticle
Data Assimilation in Forest Inventory: First Empirical Results
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4540-4557; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124384 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4064
Abstract
Data assimilation techniques were used to estimate forest stand data in 2011 by sequentially combining remote sensing based estimates of forest variables with predictions from growth models. Estimates of stand data, based on canopy height models obtained from image matching of digital aerial [...] Read more.
Data assimilation techniques were used to estimate forest stand data in 2011 by sequentially combining remote sensing based estimates of forest variables with predictions from growth models. Estimates of stand data, based on canopy height models obtained from image matching of digital aerial images at six different time-points between 2003 and 2011, served as input to the data assimilation. The assimilation routines were built on the extended Kalman filter. The study was conducted in hemi-boreal forest at the Remningstorp test site in southern Sweden (lat. 13°37′ N; long. 58°28′ E). The assimilation results were compared with two other methods used in practice for estimation of forest variables: the first was to use only the most recent estimate obtained from remotely sensed data (2011) and the second was to forecast the first estimate (2003) to the endpoint (2011). All three approaches were validated using nine 40 m radius validation plots, which were carefully measured in the field. The results showed that the data assimilation approach provided better results than the two alternative methods. Data assimilation of remote sensing time series has been used previously for calibrating forest ecosystem models, but, to our knowledge, this is the first study with real data where data assimilation has been used for estimating forest inventory data. The study constitutes a starting point for the development of a framework useful for sequentially utilizing all types of remote sensing data in order to provide precise and up-to-date estimates of forest stand parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Based Point Clouds for Forest Inventory Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Habitat Effect on Allometry of a Xeric Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch) in the Mu Us Desert of Northern China
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4529-4539; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124385 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and aboveground biomass (AGB) of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for [...] Read more.
Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and aboveground biomass (AGB) of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for desert shrubland, but their validity for biomass estimation has not been tested at a region scale with different habitats. To verify the validity of habitat-specific models, general models (combining data from all habitats/sites), and previously developed models for biomass prediction, we developed both general models and habitat-specific models for aboveground biomass and ANPP of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, a dominant shrub of the Mu Us Desert. Our results showed that models based on crown area or canopy volume consistently explained large parts of the variations in aboveground biomass and ANPP. Model fitting highlighted that general allometric models were inadequate across different habitats, and habitat-specific models were useful for that specific habitat. Previous models might be inappropriate for other sites because of site quality differences. There was a strong habitat effect on the allometric relationships of A. ordosica. Although our study is a case in point, the results indicate that allometric models for desert shrubs should be used with caution and require robust validation if adopted from other studies or applied to different sites/habitats. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Wall-to-Wall Forest Mapping Based on Digital Surface Models from Image-Based Point Clouds and a NFI Forest Definition
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4510-4528; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124386 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3383
Abstract
Forest mapping is an important source of information for assessing woodland resources and a key issue for any National Forest Inventory (NFI). In the present study, a detailed wall-to-wall forest cover map was generated for all of Switzerland, which meets the requirement of [...] Read more.
Forest mapping is an important source of information for assessing woodland resources and a key issue for any National Forest Inventory (NFI). In the present study, a detailed wall-to-wall forest cover map was generated for all of Switzerland, which meets the requirement of the Swiss NFI forest definition. The workflow is highly automated and based on digital surface models from image-based point clouds of airborne digital sensor data. It fully takes into account the four key criteria of minimum tree height, crown coverage, width, and land use. The forest cover map was validated using almost 10,000 terrestrial and stereo-interpreted NFI plots, which verified 97% agreement overall. This validation implies different categories such as five production regions, altitude, tree type, and distance to the forest border. Overall accuracy was lower at forest borders but increased with increasing distance from the forest border. Commission errors remained stable at around 10%, but increased to 17.6% at the upper tree line. Omission errors were low at 1%–10%, but also increased with altitude and mainly occurred at the upper tree line (19.7%). The main reasons for this are the lower image quality and the NFI height definition for forest which apparently excludes shrub forest from the mask. The presented forest mapping approach is superior to existing products due to its national coverage, high level of detail, regular updating, and implementation of the land use criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Based Point Clouds for Forest Inventory Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cutting Intensity on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in a Mixed Natural Forest in Southeastern China
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4495-4509; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124383 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
The mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and hardwood forest is a major forest type in China and of national and international importance in terms of its provision of both timber and ecosystem services. However, [...] Read more.
The mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and hardwood forest is a major forest type in China and of national and international importance in terms of its provision of both timber and ecosystem services. However, over-harvesting has threatened its long-term productivity and sustainability. We examined the impacts of timber harvesting intensity on soil physical and chemical properties 10 and 15 years after cutting using the research plots established with a randomized block design. We considered five treatments, including clear cutting and low (13.0% removal of growing stock volume), medium (29.1%), high (45.8%), and extra-high (67.1) intensities of selective cutting with non-cutting as the control. The impact on overall soil properties derived from principal component analysis showed increasing with a rise in cutting intensity, and the most critical impact was on soil nutrients, P and K in particular. Soil nutrient loss associated with timber harvesting even at a low cutting intensity could lead to nutrient deficits in this forest although most of the soil physical properties could be recovered under the low and medium intensities of cutting. These results indicate that clear cutting and the selective cutting of extra-high and high intensities should be avoided in this type of forest in the region. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Restoring and Conserving Khasi Forests: A Community-Based REDD Strategy from Northeast India
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4477-4494; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124382 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
An initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) was launched in December 2007 at the Bali Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), yet little progress has been made in Asia in developing [...] Read more.
An initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) was launched in December 2007 at the Bali Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), yet little progress has been made in Asia in developing certified REDD projects, especially those that engage forest-dependent people. According to UNFCCC, REDD is a multilevel activity that involves both national policy and structures, as well as subnational projects involving local communities [1]. While many Asian nations are trying to create frameworks that link the national strategy to sub-national projects, in India this formal integration has yet to take place. As a consequence projects like the Khasi Hills Community REDD+ project fall outside the UNFCCC strategy and operate under voluntary standards (Plan Vivo) and markets. The project involves both avoided deforestation and reforestation components. The project is being implemented by a federation of ten Khasi tribal kingdoms, a major ethnolinguistic group in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Project experience may provide guidance regarding actions required to create a more enabling environment for community forest carbon projects in Asia. These findings may better inform the December 2015 21st UNFCCC Conference of Parties in Paris as they again address REDD strategy. The experience of this Khasi Federation [2] in designing and implementing a REDD project has led to the emergence of a modernizing forest management system that is helping to conserve and restore the Khasi’s ancestral forests. Learning from this REDD project also illustrates the barriers that the Khasi communities have faced, including those imposed by national governments, certifiers, and carbon markets, that will likely constrain the expansion and replication of community-based climate initiatives. The author suggests some alternative policies and systems that may enable greater community participation in REDD projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Incentives and Constraints of Community and Smallholder Forestry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Leaf Decomposition of Single-Species and Litter Mixture in Pinus tabulaeformis Forests
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4462-4476; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124381 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2625 | Correction
Abstract
The litter decomposition process is closely correlated with nutrient cycling and the maintenance of soil fertility in the forest ecosystem. In particular, the intense environmental concern about atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition requires a better understanding of its influence on the litter decomposition process. [...] Read more.
The litter decomposition process is closely correlated with nutrient cycling and the maintenance of soil fertility in the forest ecosystem. In particular, the intense environmental concern about atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition requires a better understanding of its influence on the litter decomposition process. This study examines the responses of single-species litter and litter mixture decomposition processes to N addition in Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) ecosystems. Chinese pine litter, Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) litter, and a pine–oak mixture were selected from a plantation and a natural forest of Chinese pine. Four N addition treatments, i.e., control (N0: 0 kg N ha−1·year−1), low-N (N1: 5 kg N ha−1·year−1), medium-N (N2: 10 kg N ha−1·year−1), and high-N (N3: 15 kg N ha−1·year−1), were applied starting May 2010. In the plantation, N addition significantly stimulated the decomposition of the Chinese pine litter. In the natural forest, N addition had variable effects on the decomposition of single-species litter and the litter mixture. A stimulatory effect of the high-N treatment on the Chinese pine litter decomposition could be attributed to a decrease in the substrate C:N ratio. However, an opposite effect was found for the Mongolian oak litter decomposition. The stimulating effect of N addition on the Chinese pine litter may offset the suppressive effect on the Mongolian oak litter, resulting in a neutral effect on the litter mixture. These results suggest that the different responses in decomposition of single-species litter and the litter mixture to N addition are mainly attributed to litter chemical composition. Further investigations are required to characterize the effect of long-term high-level N addition on the litter decomposition as N deposition is likely to increase rapidly in the region where this study was conducted. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4451-4461; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124379 - 04 Dec 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion [...] Read more.
The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area) was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Stand Origin and Near-Natural Restoration on the Stock and Structural Composition of Fallen Trees in Mid-Subtropical Forests
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4439-4450; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124380 - 03 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Fallen trees comprise an important part of forest ecosystems and serve a central role in maintaining the biodiversity and tree regeneration of forests. However, the effects of stand origin and near-natural restoration on the biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees remain unclear. [...] Read more.
Fallen trees comprise an important part of forest ecosystems and serve a central role in maintaining the biodiversity and tree regeneration of forests. However, the effects of stand origin and near-natural restoration on the biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees remain unclear. Based on 60 sampling plots of field surveys of mid-subtropical forests in Jiangxi Province, we investigated the stock and structural composition of fallen trees in artificial coniferous forests (Acf), natural coniferous forests (Ncf) (e.g., different stand origins) and natural evergreen broadleaf forests (Nebf) (e.g., near-natural restoration). The following results were obtained: (1) the largest biomass and carbon stocks of fallen trees among three forest types (Nebf, Ncf and Acf) were measured for Nebf; (2) the fallen tree biomass and carbon stock in natural Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (Nclf) were significantly larger than that in artificial Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (Aclf), and the fallen tree biomass and carbon stock in natural Pinus massoniana forest (Npf) were also significantly larger than those in artificial Pinus massoniana forest (Apf); (3) the diameter class allocation in natural forests was more uniform than that in artificial forests; (4) the biomass of fallen trees with mild decay was not significantly different among forest types within stand origin or among the stand origin within forest types; however, the biomass of fallen trees with moderate and heavy decay significantly differed among stand origin (Aclf vs. Nclf, Apf vs. Npf), but was not significant among the forest types (Aclf vs. Apf, Nclf vs. Apf) within a stand origin. Our results suggested that the large biomass and carbon stock of fallen trees in Nebf may serve a significant role in mitigating global warming and carbon cycles in mid-subtropical forests. Therefore, stand origin and near-natural restoration exert significant effects on the carbon stock and structural composition of fallen trees in mid-subtropical forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Forests Carbon Fluxes and Sequestration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Applying Resilience Concepts in Forest Management: A Retrospective Simulation Approach
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4421-4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124377 - 01 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Increasing the resilience of ecological and sociological systems has been proposed as an option to adapt to changing future climatic conditions. However, few studies test the applicability of those strategies to forest management. This paper uses a real forest health incident to assess [...] Read more.
Increasing the resilience of ecological and sociological systems has been proposed as an option to adapt to changing future climatic conditions. However, few studies test the applicability of those strategies to forest management. This paper uses a real forest health incident to assess the ability of forest management strategies to affect ecological and economic resilience of the forest. Two landscape scale strategies are compared to business as usual management for their ability to increase resilience to a climate-change induced mountain pine beetle outbreak in the Kamloops Timber Supply Area, British Columbia, Canada for the period 1980 to 2060. Proactive management to reduce high risk species while maintaining or increasing diversity through reforestation was found to be more resilient in terms of the metrics: post-disturbance growing stock, improved volume and stability of timber flow, and net revenue. However, landscape-scale indicators of diversity were little affected by management. Our results were robust to uncertainty in tree growth rates and timber value and show that adapting to climate change through improving the resilience of forested landscapes is an economically viable option. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4403-4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124375 - 01 Dec 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate [...] Read more.
The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Changes in Species Richness and Species Replacement on Patterns of Taxonomic Homogenization in the Carpathian Forest Ecosystems
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4391-4402; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124376 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The Carpathians are Eastern Europe’s largest contiguous forest ecosystem and a hotspot of biodiversity. However, not much is known about changes in species diversity in these forests. Here we investigate the long-time changes in the diversity of plant communities in the Eastern Carpathian [...] Read more.
The Carpathians are Eastern Europe’s largest contiguous forest ecosystem and a hotspot of biodiversity. However, not much is known about changes in species diversity in these forests. Here we investigate the long-time changes in the diversity of plant communities in the Eastern Carpathian beech forests. We also inquire about the similarity of plant communities between managed and protected forests. We conduct our analyses using not only the broad-sense measure of changes in β diversity (βsor) but also the measures that reveal whether the changes result from spatial turnover (βsim) or nestedness (βnes). Our study demonstrated that the mean species richness did not significantly change over time in both forest types. However, we found a significant decrease of species diversity in protected forests and the same trend, but on a smaller scale, in managed forests. In both forest types the decrease of species diversity was mainly caused by spatial turnover, while nestedness-related changes were relatively small. However, the direction of changes in βnes differed in managed and unmanaged forests in such a way that it reduced the decrease of species diversity in managed forests and amplified the decrease of species diversity in unmanaged forests. We discuss our findings in terms of biotic homogenization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas
Forests 2015, 6(12), 4374-4390; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6124374 - 27 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution [...] Read more.
Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots), spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop