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Review

Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Using Critical Raw Materials: A Review

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Israel Institute of Metals, Technion R&D Foundation, Haifa 3200003, Israel
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ENEA–Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources Department, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy
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SportsTech Research Center, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden
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Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva c. 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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IFIMUP—Institute of Physics for Advanced Materials, Nanotechnology and Photonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 687 Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Nanoelectronics and Surface Modification, Sumy State University, 2 Rymskogo-Korsakova St., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine
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School of Engineering, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK
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School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK4 30AL, UK
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar 201314, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonino Squillace and Maria Letizia Ruello
Materials 2021, 14(4), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040909
Received: 9 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
The term “critical raw materials” (CRMs) refers to various metals and nonmetals that are crucial to Europe’s economic progress. Modern technologies enabling effective use and recyclability of CRMs are in critical demand for the EU industries. The use of CRMs, especially in the fields of biomedicine, aerospace, electric vehicles, and energy applications, is almost irreplaceable. Additive manufacturing (also referred to as 3D printing) is one of the key enabling technologies in the field of manufacturing which underpins the Fourth Industrial Revolution. 3D printing not only suppresses waste but also provides an efficient buy-to-fly ratio and possesses the potential to entirely change supply and distribution chains, significantly reducing costs and revolutionizing all logistics. This review provides comprehensive new insights into CRM-containing materials processed by modern additive manufacturing techniques and outlines the potential for increasing the efficiency of CRMs utilization and reducing the dependence on CRMs through wider industrial incorporation of AM and specifics of powder bed AM methods making them prime candidates for such developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; critical raw materials; CRM; recyclability; powders for additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion additive manufacturing; critical raw materials; CRM; recyclability; powders for additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Popov, V.V.; Grilli, M.L.; Koptyug, A.; Jaworska, L.; Katz-Demyanetz, A.; Klobčar, D.; Balos, S.; Postolnyi, B.O.; Goel, S. Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Using Critical Raw Materials: A Review. Materials 2021, 14, 909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040909

AMA Style

Popov VV, Grilli ML, Koptyug A, Jaworska L, Katz-Demyanetz A, Klobčar D, Balos S, Postolnyi BO, Goel S. Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Using Critical Raw Materials: A Review. Materials. 2021; 14(4):909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040909

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popov, Vladimir V., Maria L. Grilli, Andrey Koptyug, Lucyna Jaworska, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz, Damjan Klobčar, Sebastian Balos, Bogdan O. Postolnyi, and Saurav Goel. 2021. "Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Using Critical Raw Materials: A Review" Materials 14, no. 4: 909. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040909

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