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Solutions of Critical Raw Materials Issues Regarding Iron-Based Alloys

Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Materials, Environmental Sciences and Urban Planning, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche (DIISM), Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Institute of Mechanics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
Anton Paar GmbH, Anton-Paar-Str. 20, 8054 Graz, Austria
Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Department of Material Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
Rudolfs Cimdins Riga Biomaterials Innovations and Development Centre of RTU, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Pulka 3, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
School of Engineering, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA, UK
School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jordi Sort
Materials 2021, 14(4), 899;
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
The Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) list has been defined based on economic importance and supply risk by the European Commission. This review paper describes two issues regarding critical raw materials: the possibilities of their substitution in iron-based alloys and the use of iron-based alloys instead of other materials in order to save CRMs. This review covers strategies for saving chromium in stainless steel, substitution or lowering the amounts of carbide-forming elements (especially tungsten and vanadium) in tool steel and alternative iron-based CRM-free and low-CRM materials: austempered ductile cast iron, high-temperature alloys based on intermetallics of iron and sintered diamond tools with an iron-containing low-cobalt binder. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical raw materials; substitution; iron; alloy critical raw materials; substitution; iron; alloy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novák, P.; Bellezze, T.; Cabibbo, M.; Gamsjäger, E.; Wiessner, M.; Rajnovic, D.; Jaworska, L.; Hanus, P.; Shishkin, A.; Goel, G.; Goel, S. Solutions of Critical Raw Materials Issues Regarding Iron-Based Alloys. Materials 2021, 14, 899.

AMA Style

Novák P, Bellezze T, Cabibbo M, Gamsjäger E, Wiessner M, Rajnovic D, Jaworska L, Hanus P, Shishkin A, Goel G, Goel S. Solutions of Critical Raw Materials Issues Regarding Iron-Based Alloys. Materials. 2021; 14(4):899.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novák, Pavel, Tiziano Bellezze, Marcello Cabibbo, Ernst Gamsjäger, Manfred Wiessner, Dragan Rajnovic, Lucyna Jaworska, Pavel Hanus, Andrei Shishkin, Gaurav Goel, and Saurav Goel. 2021. "Solutions of Critical Raw Materials Issues Regarding Iron-Based Alloys" Materials 14, no. 4: 899.

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