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Open AccessArticle

A Study of Ziegler–Natta Propylene Polymerization Catalysts by Spectroscopic Methods

1
Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prosp. 47, Moscow 119991, Russia
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National Science and Technology University MISiS, Leninsky prospekt 4, Moscow 119071, Russia
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Borealis Polymers Oy, P.O. Box 330, Porvoo F1-06101, Finland
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Borealis Polyolefine GmbH, St. Peter-Strasse 25, Linz A-4021, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jung Ho Je
Materials 2017, 10(5), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10050496
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Ziegler–Natta polymerization catalysts were characterized by a complex of surface- and bulk-sensitive methods (DRIFTS, XPS, ESR, and XAS = XANES + EXAFS). A diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) study showed the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in different concentrations and absence of strong basic sites in the polymerization catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-spin resonance (ESR), and (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed the presence of Ti4+, Ti3+, Ti2+, and Ti1+ species in the surface layers and in the bulk of catalysts. The samples under study differ drastically in terms of the number of ESR-visible paramagnetic sites. The EXAFS study shows the presence of a Cl atom as a nearest neighbor of the absorbing Ti atom. View Full-Text
Keywords: propylene polymerization catalysts; Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; electron-spin resonance; XAS propylene polymerization catalysts; Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; electron-spin resonance; XAS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tkachenko, O.P.; Kucherov, A.V.; Kustov, L.M.; Virkkunen, V.; Leinonen, T.; Denifl, P. A Study of Ziegler–Natta Propylene Polymerization Catalysts by Spectroscopic Methods. Materials 2017, 10, 496.

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