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Review

Biogas and Biomethane Production and Usage: Technology Development, Advantages and Challenges in Europe

1
Pere Pirkera 38, 10361 Sesvetski Kraljevec, Croatia
2
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec and Borivoje Pašić
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082940
Received: 28 March 2022 / Revised: 13 April 2022 / Accepted: 13 April 2022 / Published: 17 April 2022
In line with the low-carbon strategy, the EU is expected to be climate-neutral by 2050, which would require a significant increase in renewable energy production. Produced biogas is directly used to produce electricity and heat, or it can be upgraded to reach the “renewable natural gas”, i.e., biomethane. This paper reviews the applied production technology and current state of biogas and biomethane production in Europe. Germany, UK, Italy and France are the leaders in biogas production in Europe. Biogas from AD processes is most represented in total biogas production (84%). Germany is deserving for the majority (52%) of AD biogas in the EU, while landfill gas production is well represented in the UK (43%). Biogas from sewage sludge is poorly presented by less than 5% in total biogas quantities produced in the EU. Biomethane facilities will reach a production of 32 TWh in 2020 in Europe. There are currently 18 countries producing biomethane (Germany and France with highest share). Most of the European plants use agricultural substrate (28%), while the second position refers to energy crop feedstock (25%). Sewage sludge facilities participate with 14% in the EU, mostly applied in Sweden. Membrane separation is the most used upgrading technology, applied at around 35% of biomethane plants. High energy prices today, and even higher in the future, give space for the wider acceptance of biomethane use. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogas; biomethane; gas cleaning and upgrading; anaerobic digestion; circular economy; emission reduction biogas; biomethane; gas cleaning and upgrading; anaerobic digestion; circular economy; emission reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavičić, J.; Novak Mavar, K.; Brkić, V.; Simon, K. Biogas and Biomethane Production and Usage: Technology Development, Advantages and Challenges in Europe. Energies 2022, 15, 2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082940

AMA Style

Pavičić J, Novak Mavar K, Brkić V, Simon K. Biogas and Biomethane Production and Usage: Technology Development, Advantages and Challenges in Europe. Energies. 2022; 15(8):2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavičić, Josipa, Karolina Novak Mavar, Vladislav Brkić, and Katarina Simon. 2022. "Biogas and Biomethane Production and Usage: Technology Development, Advantages and Challenges in Europe" Energies 15, no. 8: 2940. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082940

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