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Article

Integration of Photovoltaic Electricity with Shallow Geothermal Systems for Residential Microgrids: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Analysis with RES2GEO Model

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Geology and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Mining, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Terra Energy Generation Company d.o.o., 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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MOE Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory—SPIL, NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology—VUT BRNO, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Hernández-Callejo
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071923
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
The European Union aims to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 55% before 2030 compared to 1990 as a reference year. One of the main contributions to GHG emissions comes from the household sector. This paper shows that the household sector, when organised into a form of prosumer microgrids, including renewable sources for electric, heating and cooling energy supply, can be efficiently decarbonised. This paper investigates one hypothetical prosumer microgrid with the model RES2GEO (Renewable Energy Sources to Geothermal). The aim is to integrate a carbon-free photovoltaic electricity source and a shallow geothermal reservoir as a heat source and heat sink during the heating and cooling season. A total of four cases have been evaluated for the Zagreb City location. The results represent a balance of both thermal and electric energy flows within the microgrid, as well as thermal recuperation of the reservoir. The levelised cost of energy for all cases, based on a 20-year modelling horizon, varies between 41 and 63 EUR/MWh. On the other hand, all cases show a decrease in CO2 emissions by more than 75%, with the best case featuring a reduction of more than 85% compared to the base case, where electricity and gas for heating are supplied from the Distribution System Operator at retail prices. With the use of close integration of electricity, heating and cooling demand and supply of energy, cost-effective decarbonisation can be achieved for the household sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid; photovoltaic; shallow geothermal; geothermal heat pumps; techno-economic analysis; levelized cost of energy; energy efficiency; decarbonisation; RES2GEO model microgrid; photovoltaic; shallow geothermal; geothermal heat pumps; techno-economic analysis; levelized cost of energy; energy efficiency; decarbonisation; RES2GEO model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perković, L.; Leko, D.; Brettschneider, A.L.; Mikulčić, H.; Varbanov, P.S. Integration of Photovoltaic Electricity with Shallow Geothermal Systems for Residential Microgrids: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Analysis with RES2GEO Model. Energies 2021, 14, 1923. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071923

AMA Style

Perković L, Leko D, Brettschneider AL, Mikulčić H, Varbanov PS. Integration of Photovoltaic Electricity with Shallow Geothermal Systems for Residential Microgrids: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Analysis with RES2GEO Model. Energies. 2021; 14(7):1923. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perković, Luka, Domagoj Leko, Amalia L. Brettschneider, Hrvoje Mikulčić, and Petar S. Varbanov. 2021. "Integration of Photovoltaic Electricity with Shallow Geothermal Systems for Residential Microgrids: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Analysis with RES2GEO Model" Energies 14, no. 7: 1923. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071923

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