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Open AccessArticle

High Throughput Screening and Characterization Methods of Jordanian Oil Shale as a Case Study

1
Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering Department, German Jordanian University, Amman 11180, Jordan
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 7 Gagarina Street, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
3
Chemical and Mineral Analysis Division, Jordan Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, P.O. Box 7, Amman 11118, Jordan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163148
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources)
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PDF [7318 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]
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Abstract

Oil shale is an important possible solution to the problem of energy in Jordan. To explore the technical and the economic feasibility of oil shale deposits, numerous samples are analyzed using the standard Fischer Assay (FA) method. However, it would be useful to develop faster, cheaper, and reliable methods for determining the oil content of oil shale. Therefore, the aim of this work was to propose and investigate rapid analytical techniques for the screening of oil shale deposits and to correlate them with the FA method. The Omari deposit located east of Jordan was selected as a case study for analysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Results obtained from the TGA method were linearly correlated with FA with high regression factor (R2 = 0.99); a quadratic correlation (R2 = 0.98) was maintained between the FA and the elemental hydrogen mass content, and a quadratic correlation (R2 = 0.97) was found between the FA and the aliphatic hydrocarbons (FTIR peak at 2927 cm−1) produced in the pyrolysis zone. Although other techniques were less correlated, further investigation might lead to better results. Subsequently, these correlated techniques can be a practical alternative to the conventional FA method when, in particular, specific correlation is made for each deposit. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil shale; Jordan; TGA; FTIR; DSC; elemental analysis; XRF; XRD; SEM; EDX oil shale; Jordan; TGA; FTIR; DSC; elemental analysis; XRF; XRD; SEM; EDX
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abu El-Rub, Z.; Kujawa, J.; Albarahmieh, E.; Al-Rifai, N.; Qaimari, F.; Al-Gharabli, S. High Throughput Screening and Characterization Methods of Jordanian Oil Shale as a Case Study. Energies 2019, 12, 3148.

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