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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Drilling Fluid Activity on the Hydration Behavior of Shale Reservoirs in Northwestern Hunan, China

by 1,2,3, 1,2,*, 4,*, 1,2,*, 1,2 and 1,2
1
Schools of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
2
Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring (Ministry of Education), Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
3
Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3151; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163151
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources)
The interaction between drilling fluid and shale has a significant impact on wellbore stability during shale oil and gas drilling operations. This paper investigates the effects of the drilling fluid activity on the surface and osmotic hydration characteristics of shale. Experiments were conducted to measure the influence of drilling fluid activity on surface wettability by monitoring the evolution of fluid-shale contact angles. The relationship between drilling fluid activity and shale swelling ratio was determined to investigate the osmotic hydration behavior. The results indicate that, with increasing drilling fluid activity, the fluid–shale contact angles gradually increase—the higher the activity, the faster the adsorption rate; and the stronger the inhibition ability, the weaker the surface hydration action. The surface adsorption rate of the shale with a KCl drilling fluid was found to be the highest. Regarding the osmotic hydration action on the shale, the negative extreme swelling ratio (b) of the shale was found to be: bKCl < bCTAB < bSDBS. Moreover, based on the relationship between the shale swelling ratio and drilling fluid activity, shale hydration can be divided into complete dehydration, weak dehydration, surface hydration, and osmotic hydration, which contributes to the choice of drilling fluids to improve wellbore stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: shale reservoirs; surface hydration; osmotic hydration; negative extreme swelling ratio; safety levels of activity shale reservoirs; surface hydration; osmotic hydration; negative extreme swelling ratio; safety levels of activity
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Cao, H.; Zhang, Z.; Bao, T.; Sun, P.; Wang, T.; Gao, Q. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Drilling Fluid Activity on the Hydration Behavior of Shale Reservoirs in Northwestern Hunan, China. Energies 2019, 12, 3151.

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