The development of alternative fuels is increasingly important in order to maintain ongoing global economic and technological progress in the face of fossil fuel depletion and increasing environmental damage. Desert palm date seeds have clear potential as feedstock for biodiesel production given their high oil content and availability as food waste that requires no further cultivation. In this study we investigated the optimum production processes and conditions for date seed oil biodiesel, including characterizing the intermediate product and correcting its composition to meet international fuel standards. Four biodiesel blends were prepared (B5, B10, B15, and B20) and tested in a compression ignition engine at engine speeds from 1600 to 3600 rpm (200 rpm increments) and three engine loads (50%, 75%, and 100%). The highest oil yield and biodiesel conversion achieved were 10.74 wt.% and 92%, respectively. The biodiesel properties conformed well with the standards; the values for brake power, brake thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption were comparable with petrol diesel, though the latter was slightly superior. All blends produced lower levels of CO2
, CO, and HC but higher levels of NOx
emissions. These results demonstrate the fundamental suitability of date seeds as biodiesel feedstock, deserving of further research.
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