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Desert Palm Date Seeds as a Biodiesel Feedstock: Extraction, Characterization, and Engine Testing

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Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
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Sustainable Energy Development Research Group, Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering (RISE), University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
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Department of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
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Mechanical Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
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College of Petroleum and Minerals Engineering, Tikrit University, Tikrit 0218, Iraq
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163147
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
The development of alternative fuels is increasingly important in order to maintain ongoing global economic and technological progress in the face of fossil fuel depletion and increasing environmental damage. Desert palm date seeds have clear potential as feedstock for biodiesel production given their high oil content and availability as food waste that requires no further cultivation. In this study we investigated the optimum production processes and conditions for date seed oil biodiesel, including characterizing the intermediate product and correcting its composition to meet international fuel standards. Four biodiesel blends were prepared (B5, B10, B15, and B20) and tested in a compression ignition engine at engine speeds from 1600 to 3600 rpm (200 rpm increments) and three engine loads (50%, 75%, and 100%). The highest oil yield and biodiesel conversion achieved were 10.74 wt.% and 92%, respectively. The biodiesel properties conformed well with the standards; the values for brake power, brake thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption were comparable with petrol diesel, though the latter was slightly superior. All blends produced lower levels of CO2, CO, and HC but higher levels of NOx emissions. These results demonstrate the fundamental suitability of date seeds as biodiesel feedstock, deserving of further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; date seeds; desert palm tree; transesterification; brake power; brake specific fuel consumption; engine emissions biodiesel; date seeds; desert palm tree; transesterification; brake power; brake specific fuel consumption; engine emissions
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Kamil, M.; Ramadan, K.; Olabi, A.G.; Ghenai, C.; Inayat, A.; Rajab, M.H. Desert Palm Date Seeds as a Biodiesel Feedstock: Extraction, Characterization, and Engine Testing. Energies 2019, 12, 3147.

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