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Proof-of-Concept of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction—Studying the Process Kinetics and the Influence of Temperature and Duration on the Calorific Value of the Produced Biocoal

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Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37/41 Chełmońskiego Str., 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163060
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
Poland, being the 3rd largest and growing producer of mushrooms in the world, generates almost 25% of the total European production. The generation rate of waste mushroom spent compost (MSC) amounts to 5 kg per 1 kg of mushrooms produced. We proposed the MSC treatment via torrefaction for the production of solid fuel—biocoal. In this research, we examined the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and we tested the influence of torrefaction temperature within the range from 200 to 300 °C and treatment time lasting from 20 to 60 min on the resulting biocoal’s (fuel) properties. The estimated value of the torrefaction activation energy of MSC was 22.3 kJ mol−1. The highest calorific value = 17.9 MJ kg−1 d.m. was found for 280 °C (60 min torrefaction time). A significant (p < 0.05) influence of torrefaction temperature on HHV increase within the same group of torrefaction duration, i.e., 20, 40, or 60 min, was observed. The torrefaction duration significantly (p < 0.05) increased the HHV for 220 °C and decreased HHV for 300 °C. The highest mass yield (98.5%) was found for 220 °C (60 min), while the highest energy yield was found for 280 °C (60 min). In addition, estimations of the biocoal recirculation rate to maintain the heat self-sufficiency of MSC torrefaction were made. The net quantity of biocoal (torrefied MSC; 65.3% moisture content) and the 280 °C (60 min) torrefaction variant was used. The initial mass and energy balance showed that MSC torrefaction might be feasible and self-sufficient for heat when ~43.6% of produced biocoal is recirculated to supply the heat for torrefaction. Thus, we have shown a concept for an alternative utilization of abundant biowaste (MSC). This research provides a basis for alternative use of an abundant biowaste and can help charting improved, sustainable mushroom production. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste to energy; waste to carbon; mushroom spent compost; biocoal; torrefaction; activation energy; fuel properties; circular economy waste to energy; waste to carbon; mushroom spent compost; biocoal; torrefaction; activation energy; fuel properties; circular economy
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Syguła, E.; Koziel, J.A.; Białowiec, A. Proof-of-Concept of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction—Studying the Process Kinetics and the Influence of Temperature and Duration on the Calorific Value of the Produced Biocoal. Energies 2019, 12, 3060.

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  • Supplementary File 1:

    XLSX-Document (XLSX, 94 KB)

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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.20944/preprints201906.0189.v1
    Description: Syguła, E.; A. Koziel, J.; Białowiec, A. Waste to Carbon: Preliminary Research on Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction. Preprints 2019, 2019060189 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201906.0189.v1). File “MSC torrefaction data.xlsx”
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