# Coupling Methodology for Studying the Far Field Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays over a Varying Bathymetry

^{*}

*Energies*

**2018**,

*11*(11), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112899 (registering DOI)

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Generic Coupling Methodology

- Any wave-structure interaction solver that describes the perturbed wave field is suitable for obtaining the input parameters for the internal wave generation boundary. Models based on potential flow theory (e.g., BEM [17,22,23]) or analytical models based on analytical calculation of coefficients or numerical models based on resolving the Navier–Stokes equations (e.g., CFD [6] or SPH) are all suitable in obtaining the perturbed wave field around the WEC array [20].
- Any wave propagation model can be used. A wave propagation boundary can be implemented in both phase-resolving and phase-averaging models.
- The methodology applies to any kind of oscillating or floating structure. In this paper, a WEC array of heaving point absorber WECs is modelled using a phase-resolving model (in order to demonstrate this numerical coupling methodology). However, it can be applied to oscillating water column WECs, overtopping WECs, wave surge WECs, floating breakwaters or platforms.

## 3. Application of the Coupling Methodology between the Wave Propagation Model, MILDwave, and the BEM Solver, NEMOH

#### 3.1. Numerical Background

#### 3.1.1. Linear Potential Flow

- The flow is inviscid.
- The flow is irrotational.
- The flow is incompressible.

#### 3.1.2. Wave Propagation Model MILDwave

#### 3.1.3. Wave-Structure Interaction Solver NEMOH

#### 3.1.4. Modelled WECs

#### 3.1.5. Wave Characteristics

#### 3.2. Coupling Methodology Implementation

#### 3.3. Experimental Data-Set Used for Numerical Validation Purposes

#### 3.4. Test Program

#### 3.4.1. Coupling Methodology Implementation for Constant Bottom Bathymetry

#### 3.4.2. Coupling Methodology Validation for Constant Bottom Bathymetry against Experimental Data

#### 3.4.3. Coupling Methodology Implementation for Varying Bathymetry

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Coupling Methodology Implementation for Constant Bottom Bathymetry

#### 4.1.1. NEMOH Wave Field

#### 4.1.2. NEMOH-MILDwave Coupled Model Wave Field

#### 4.1.3. Comparison of the Total Wave Field Generated by NEMOH and the NEMOH-MILDwave Coupled Model

#### 4.2. Coupling Methodology Validation for Constant Bottom Bathymetry against Experimental Data

#### 4.3. Coupling Implementation for Varying Bathymetry

## 5. Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

WEC | Wave Energy Converter |

BEM | Boundary Element Method |

CFD | Computer Fluid Dynamics |

SPH | Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics |

PTO | Power Take-Off |

RAO | Response Amplitude Operator |

DHI | Danish Hydraulic Institute |

WG | Wave Gauge |

RMSE | Root-Mean-Square-Error |

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**Figure 1.**Visual representation of the near field effects between neighboring oscillating WECs (represented by solid circles) in a WEC array under incident waves [1].

**Figure 2.**Flow chart of the generic coupling methodology between a wave-structure interaction solver and a wave propagation model.

**Figure 3.**Schematic of a one-way coupling (

**left**) and two-way coupling (

**right**). In the inner model domain, the motions of the studied structure(s)/WEC(s) are solved.

**Figure 4.**Plane (Top) view of the WEC array layout for nine heaving buoys. $\lambda $ indicates the direction of wave propagation.

**Figure 5.**Sketch of the incident wave propagation (

**left**) and perturbed wave propagation (

**right**) in MILDwave. The black line corresponds to the wave generation line, the black circle corresponds to the circular wave generation boundary and the grey areas correspond to absorption zones (sponge layers) down-wave, up-wave and along the sides of the numerical domain.

**Figure 7.**Plan view of the WECwakes experimental set-up in the DHI wave basin as a 5 × 5 rectilinear array. The red crosses indicate the position of all the wave gauges installed in the DHI wave basin during the experiments and the black circles indicate the location of the different WEC units. The wave paddles are denoted by the red hatched area at the bottom of the figure while the black hatched area at the top of the figure represents the installed absorbing beach. Two guiding walls were installed at the sides of the basin, denoted in blue lines [1].

**Figure 8.**Set up of the WEC array layout used for the comparison between the coupled model and the experimental tests. WECs are represented by • and wave gauges (WGs) by x. The WG are numbered as they appear in the WECwakes experimental data set. The direction of wave propagation, indicated by $\lambda $, is from left to right.

**Figure 9.**Depth view showing the location of the 9-WEC array. x–z plane (side) profile. The coastline is located at the right side of the figure. The 9-WEC array is located at the center of the domain.

**Figure 10.**NEMOH results of ${K}_{D}$ for a 9-WEC array for regular waves (

**top**) with T = 6 s (

**left**), T = 8 s (

**middle**) and T = 10 s (

**right**) and for irregular waves (

**bottom**) with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s (

**left**), ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s (

**middle**) and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s (

**right**). Contour levels are set at an interval 0.04 m. The white solid circles indicate the location of the WECs

**Figure 11.**NEMOH-MILDwave couple model ${K}_{D}$ values of a 9-WEC array for regular waves with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s. Contour levels are set at an interval 0.04 m. The water depth is 40 m. Waves are propagating from left to right. The coupling region is masked out using a white circle and includes the WECs. The NEMOH numerical domain is limited by black square.

**Figure 12.**Relative difference (%) in ${K}_{D}$ between NEMOH-MILDwave coupled model and NEMOH. Regular waves (

**top**) and Irregular waves (

**bottom**). For regular waves with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s. The coupling region is masked out using a white circle.

**Figure 13.**Cross-section S1 of the ${K}_{D}$ for a 9-WEC array at y = 0 m for regular waves (

**left**) and irregular waves (

**right**) for regular waves with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s. The coupling region is masked out in gray between two vertical black lines.

**Figure 14.**Cross-section S2 of the ${K}_{D}$ for a 9-WEC array at y = 200 m for regular waves (

**left**) and irregular waves (

**right**) for regular waves with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s.

**Figure 15.**Surface elevations $\eta $ for the NEMOH-MILDwave coupled model and the WECwakes experimental data for a total of 15 wave gauges shown in Figure 8.

**Figure 16.**Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values for the free surface elevation $\eta $ for the 15 wave gauges analyzed from the data set (see Figure 8).

**Figure 17.**NEMOH-MILDwave couple model ${K}_{D}$ values of a 9-WEC array for regular waves (

**left**) with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves (

**right**) with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s with a slopping bathymetry. Contour levels are set at an interval 0.04 m. Waves are propagating from left to right. The coupling region is masked out with a white circle.

**Figure 18.**Cross-section S1 of the ${K}_{D}$ for a 9-WEC array at y = 0 m for regular waves (

**left**) with T = 6 s, T = 8 s and T = 10 s and for irregular waves (

**right**) with ${T}_{p}$ = 6 s, ${T}_{p}$ = 8 s and ${T}_{p}$ = 10 s at a constant depth and a sloping bathymetry. The coupling region is masked out in gray between two vertical black lines.

Regular Waves | |||

Case Name | T(s) | H(m) | $\mathit{\theta}$= 0${}^{\mathbf{\circ}}$ |

A | 6 | 2 | 0 |

B | 8 | 2 | 0 |

C | 10 | 2 | 0 |

Irregular Waves | |||

Case Name | ${\mathit{T}}_{\mathit{p}}$(s) | ${\mathit{H}}_{\mathit{s}}$(m) | $\mathit{\theta}$= 0${}^{\mathbf{\circ}}$ |

D | 6 | 2 | 0 |

E | 8 | 2 | 0 |

F | 10 | 2 | 0 |

Test Number | Numerical Models | Wave Type | H (m) | T (s) | Water Depth d (m) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | NEMOH | REG | 2 | 6 | 40 |

2 | NEMOH | REG | 2 | 8 | 40 |

3 | NEMOH | REG | 2 | 10 | 40 |

4 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 6 | 40 |

5 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 8 | 40 |

6 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 10 | 40 |

7 | NEMOH | IRREG | 2 | 6 | 40 |

8 | NEMOH | IRREG | 2 | 8 | 40 |

9 | NEMOH | IRREG | 2 | 10 | 40 |

10 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 6 | 40 |

11 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 8 | 40 |

12 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 10 | 40 |

Test Number | Numerical Models | Wave Type | H (m) | T (s) | Water Depth d (m) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

13 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 6 | VAR |

14 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 8 | VAR |

15 | NEMOH-MILDwave | REG | 2 | 10 | VAR |

16 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 6 | VAR |

17 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 8 | VAR |

18 | NEMOH-MILDwave | IRREG | 2 | 10 | VAR |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Verao Fernandez, G.; Balitsky, P.; Stratigaki, V.; Troch, P.
Coupling Methodology for Studying the Far Field Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays over a Varying Bathymetry. *Energies* **2018**, *11*, 2899.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112899

**AMA Style**

Verao Fernandez G, Balitsky P, Stratigaki V, Troch P.
Coupling Methodology for Studying the Far Field Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays over a Varying Bathymetry. *Energies*. 2018; 11(11):2899.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112899

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Verao Fernandez, Gael, Philip Balitsky, Vasiliki Stratigaki, and Peter Troch.
2018. "Coupling Methodology for Studying the Far Field Effects of Wave Energy Converter Arrays over a Varying Bathymetry" *Energies* 11, no. 11: 2899.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112899