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Nutraceuticals, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 9 articles

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14 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Geranylgeraniol on Blood Safety and Sex Hormone Profiles in Healthy Adults: A Dose-Escalation, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Raad Gheith, Matthew Sharp, Matthew Stefan, Charlie Ottinger, Ryan Lowery and Jacob Wilson
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 605-618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040043 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 5345
Abstract
Geranylgeraniol (GG), an ingredient extracted from the South American annatto plant, has been shown to benefit bone and muscle health, is crucial in the biosynthesis of menaquinone-4 and coenzyme Q10, and has pain and inflammation reduction activities. However, no known studies to date [...] Read more.
Geranylgeraniol (GG), an ingredient extracted from the South American annatto plant, has been shown to benefit bone and muscle health, is crucial in the biosynthesis of menaquinone-4 and coenzyme Q10, and has pain and inflammation reduction activities. However, no known studies to date have demonstrated the safety and impact of GG supplementation in humans. This 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalated trial was conducted to determine the effect of GG on blood safety and hormone markers in healthy adults. Sixty-six males and females between 30 and 49 years of age were supplemented with either GG or a placebo (PLA) for 8 weeks, with dose escalation from 150 mg to 300 mg occurring after 4 weeks in the treatment group. Changes in complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panels were analyzed for whole study groups (males and females) while changes in sex hormone panels were analyzed for males and females independently. There were no significant changes in complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, progesterone, estradiol, sex–hormone binding globulin, or dihydrotestosterone (p > 0.05). An exploratory analysis of testosterone levels in a subgroup of males with baseline (Pre) total testosterone < 700 ng/dL (GG = 15; PLA = 13) demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) from Pre to Week 8 in total-, free-, and bioavailable testosterone (+7.5%, +15.0%, and +14.8%, respectively). This study demonstrates that GG does not significantly change the composition of blood chemistry, hematology, or sex hormone profiles in adult males or females. Given the effects observed in the exploratory analysis in a subgroup of males, GG supplementation may be beneficial for testosterone enhancement in male populations subject to low testosterone (i.e., aging males and those with late-onset hypogonadism), but further research is needed. Full article
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14 pages, 5024 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Inhibitory Activity of the Efflux Pump of Essential Oils from Croton piauhiensis Müll.
by Beatriz Gonçalves Cruz, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Maria do Socorro Costa, Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Selene Maia de Morais, Emmanuel Silva Marinho, Alexandre Magno Rodrigues Teixeira and Hélcio Silva dos Santos
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 591-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040042 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
As the spread of bacterial resistance to clinically available antibiotics has become a global public health problem, the scientific community has intensified its studies in the search for natural compounds and their derivatives to combat bacterial resistance. In this work, a circadian study [...] Read more.
As the spread of bacterial resistance to clinically available antibiotics has become a global public health problem, the scientific community has intensified its studies in the search for natural compounds and their derivatives to combat bacterial resistance. In this work, a circadian study of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton piauhiensis (EOCP) was carried out. We also sought to evaluate its antibacterial activity, modulatory potential and if it acts as a possible inhibitor of the efflux pump by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the association of the oil in subinhibitory concentrations with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin and with ethidium bromide (EtBr) against the strain of Staphylococcus aureus K2068 strain. The assays used to obtain the MIC of the EOCP were performed by broth microdilution, while the efflux pump inhibitory test was performed by the MIC modification method. According to the results, the circadian study showed differences in the chemical composition and percentage of oils collected at different times of the day, which can be attributed to environmental conditions. The main components of the EOCP were β-caryophyllene (6 h—21.23%; 12 h—22.86% and 18 h—16.95%), followed by D-Limonene (6 h—13.27% and 18 h—15.95%) and γ-Elemene (12 h)—12.61%). The EOCP collected at 12 h had a better profile in reducing MIC, presenting antibacterial activity for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In the efflux pump test, it was observed that the oil was able to potentiate the action of ethidium bromide against the S. aureus K2068 strain, which can contribute to the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Full article
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17 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Influence of Maceration Solvent on Chemical Composition of Gemmotherapy Macerates—A Case Study on Olea europaea Young Shoots
by Dimitri Bréard, Hélène Esselin, Lucie Bugeia, Séverine Boisard, David Guilet, Pascal Richomme, Anne-Marie Le Ray and Christophe Ripoll
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 574-590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040041 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Gemmotherapy, a natural therapy based on bud macerates, has recently gained importance in the field of food supplements. However, two coexisting extraction methods employ a glycerin-based solvent, either in a binary or ternary solvent mixture. The absence of an official method for bud [...] Read more.
Gemmotherapy, a natural therapy based on bud macerates, has recently gained importance in the field of food supplements. However, two coexisting extraction methods employ a glycerin-based solvent, either in a binary or ternary solvent mixture. The absence of an official method for bud preparation leads to non-standardized bud macerates. Given this context, this study aimed to (i) assess the influence of solvent composition on the chemical profile of olive young shoot macerates obtained using glycerin-based solvents or using different solvent extractions and (ii) to compare the two coexisting traditional bud extraction methods described by Dr Pol Henry and by the European Pharmacopoeia. A comprehensive phytochemical analysis of all macerates was conducted using HPLC-DAD-ELSD-MS2, identifying 50 metabolites divided into 7 classes through dereplication. The extracts obtained with the solvent described by the European Pharmacopoeia (ethanol/glycerin) and by Dr Pol Henry (water/ethanol/glycerin) appeared to be the most diversified in terms of metabolite distribution and possessed higher rates of secondary metabolites. These observations reinforce the interest in a glycerin-based solvent mixture for bud extraction in gemmotherapy. In addition, the difference in composition between the two traditional solvents was highlighted. Indeed, iridoids were predominant in both macerates, representing about 50% of the chemical composition, but differences were observed from one macerate to another regarding the proportions of the other chemical classes. This emphasizes the necessity for standardized gemmotherapy macerates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods - 2nd Volume)
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18 pages, 3290 KiB  
Review
Momordica balsamina L.: A Plant with Multiple Therapeutic and Nutritional Potential—A Review
by Marème Thiaw, Issa Samb, Manon Genva, Mohamed Lamine Gaye and Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 556-573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040040 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
This review seeks to deepen our comprehension of the African plant Momordica balsamina L. by elucidating its therapeutically important molecules and nutrient composition. Commonly referred to as the balsam apple, this plant species is extensively harnessed for its diverse therapeutic potential across its [...] Read more.
This review seeks to deepen our comprehension of the African plant Momordica balsamina L. by elucidating its therapeutically important molecules and nutrient composition. Commonly referred to as the balsam apple, this plant species is extensively harnessed for its diverse therapeutic potential across its various organs, including leaves, fruits, roots, and stems. Numerous bioactive molecules have been isolated or identified within this plant, notably encompassing polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, and carotenoids. These compounds exhibit a wide array of biological activities, ranging from antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-carcinogenic to anti-malarial properties, among others. Furthermore, the leaves of Momordica balsamina L. stand out for their abundant micronutrients, proteins, and amino acids. This investigation aims to shed light not only on the botanical characteristics of the Momordica balsamina plant and its potential applications in traditional medicine but also on its chemical composition, biological functionalities, and physicochemical attributes, thus accentuating its nutritional advantages. Nonetheless, an intriguing avenue presents itself for the exploration of strategies to conserve this species, delve deeper into its potential within the cosmetics industry, and innovate methodologies for the synthesis or biosynthesis of these bioactive molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy 2.0)
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16 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Absorption and Excretion of Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates after Ingestion of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) Leaf Flour in Mice: A Preliminary Study
by Tânia Martins, Tiago Ferreira, Bruno Colaço, Beatriz Medeiros-Fonseca, Maria de Lurdes Pinto, Ana Novo Barros, Carlos Venâncio, Eduardo Rosa, Luís Miguel Antunes, Paula Alexandra Oliveira and Maria João Pires
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 540-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040039 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
During the harvesting of the broccoli plant, the leaves are discarded, being considered a by-product that may be up to 47% of total broccoli biomass, representing a large amount of wasted material. The use of broccoli leaves is of great interest in the [...] Read more.
During the harvesting of the broccoli plant, the leaves are discarded, being considered a by-product that may be up to 47% of total broccoli biomass, representing a large amount of wasted material. The use of broccoli leaves is of great interest in the sense that this wasted material is rich in health promoter compounds, such as isothiocyanates. In this study, C57BL/6J mice ingested 790 mg/kg broccoli leaf flour, and the presence of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in the plasma, liver, kidney, adipose tissue, faeces and urine was analysed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post-ingestion. In plasma, only glucoerucin (GE), glucobrassicin (GB), sulforaphane (SFN) and indol-3-carbinol (I3C) were detected, and all four compounds peaked between 4 and 8 h after ingestion. The compounds SFN, SFN-glutathione (SFN-GSH), SFN–cysteine (SFN-CYS) and SFN-N-acetyl-cysteine (SFN-NAC) were excreted in faeces at high levels, while glucoraphanin (GR), the precursor of SFN, was not detected in any biological samples other than urine. In the liver, the compounds GE, SFN-CYS, SFN-NAC and I3C were detected, while in the kidney, only GE, GB and SFN-GSH were present. None of the glucosinolates and isothiocyanates analysed were detected in fat tissue. These results demonstrate that glucosinolates and their derivatives were absorbed into the bloodstream and were bioavailable after ingestion of powdered broccoli leaves. Full article
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11 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Puruí (Alibertia edulis, Rubiaceae), an Edible Dark Purple Fruit from the Brazilian Amazon
by Natale Cristine C. Carvalho, Odair S. Monteiro, Claudia Q. da Rocha, Joyce Kelly R. da Silva and José Guilherme S. Maia
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 529-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040038 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Albertia edulis is known as Puruí, and its leaf tea is used in the hypoglycemic and antihypertensive treatments of the Amazon native population. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of the Puruí pulp fruit. The hydroethanolic (LFP-E), ethyl [...] Read more.
Albertia edulis is known as Puruí, and its leaf tea is used in the hypoglycemic and antihypertensive treatments of the Amazon native population. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of the Puruí pulp fruit. The hydroethanolic (LFP-E), ethyl acetate (LFP-A), and volatile concentrate (LPF-V) extracts of Puruí lyophilized fruit pulp were analyzed via LC-ISI-IT-MS, GC, and GC-MS. Moreover, total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC) and TEAC/ABTS and DPPH assays were conducted to determine their antioxidant capacity. Compounds palmitic acid, methyl linolenate, methyl linoleate, palmitic alcohol, benzene acetaldehyde, tridecanal, and furfural were mainly identified in the LPF-V extract. Compounds caffeic and quinic acids, genipin, annonaine, 3′-7-dimethoxy-3-hydroxyflavone, 4′-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 6-hydroxy-7-epigardoside methyl ester, baicalin, and phloretin-2-O-apiofuranosyl-glucopyranoside were mainly identified in the LFP-E and LFP-A extracts. For LFP-E and LFP-A extracts, TPC values were 5.75 ± 0.75 and 66.75 ± 3.1 mg GAE/g; TFC values were 1.14 ± 0.65 and 50.97 ± 1.2 mg QE/g; DPPH assay showed EC50 values of 1021.65 ± 5.9 and 133.60 ± 3.9 µg/mL; and TEAC/ABTS assay showed values of 28.36 ± 3.7 and 142.26 ± 2.2 µM TE/g. Alibertia edulis fruits are significant sources of phenolic compounds, also showing significant antioxidant capacity. The Puruí fruit seems promising for developing innovative and healthy products for the nutritional food market. Full article
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16 pages, 1274 KiB  
Article
Dietary Alaska Pollack Protein Induces Acute Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Rats, Regardless of Specific Amino Acid and Amino Acid Balance of Diet
by Kenji Uchida, Mina Fujitani, Takafumi Mizushige, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yuma Hara, Mariko Sawai, Sachi Utsunomiya, Ryota Uehigashi, Shinji Okada and Taro Kishida
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 513-528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040037 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
In previous studies, Alaska pollack protein intake induced acute and sustainable skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats. The present study used 5-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats to investigate whether a specific amino acid or amino acid composition is related to Alaska pollack protein-induced skeletal muscle [...] Read more.
In previous studies, Alaska pollack protein intake induced acute and sustainable skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats. The present study used 5-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats to investigate whether a specific amino acid or amino acid composition is related to Alaska pollack protein-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The results suggest that dietary Alaska pollack protein increases the gastrocnemius muscle mass, regardless of specific amino acids including arginine and leucine, which are suggested to increase skeletal muscle mass and amino acid balance in the diet. The oral administration of 333 mg/kg/day Alaska pollack protein significantly increased gastrocnemius muscle weight compared with the oral administration of casein. In this case, the amino acid intake was expected to be almost the same as in the casein group because Alaska pollack protein made up approximately 1/60 of the protein consumed per day. The specific protein or the specific hydrolyzed peptides from Alaska pollack protein or other minor components in Alaska pollack protein may be responsible for gastrocnemius muscle weight hypertrophy. Full article
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14 pages, 687 KiB  
Review
Medicinal Properties of Honey and Cordyceps Mushrooms
by Theodor-Ioan Badea and Emanuel Vamanu
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 499-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040036 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
In a world still recovering after the COVID-19 pandemic, the consequences of which are still not entirely known, the attention of scientists worldwide is drawn to natural products with positive effects on immunity. The starting point for tackling such a subject is proper [...] Read more.
In a world still recovering after the COVID-19 pandemic, the consequences of which are still not entirely known, the attention of scientists worldwide is drawn to natural products with positive effects on immunity. The starting point for tackling such a subject is proper documentation of substances used in traditional medicine, which usually have significant nutritional and functional values. Among the most well-known of these substances are mushrooms and honey, both of which have been used for thousands of years all around the globe. The following work aims to gather information about the properties of honey and Cordyceps sp. mushrooms by studying the scientific literature available at this point. With the proper use of this information, it will be possible to develop products that incorporate the studied ingredients to increase their functional and medicinal value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Nutraceuticals in Actual Therapeutic Strategies)
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10 pages, 1923 KiB  
Article
The Novel Synbiotic, AG1®, Increases Short-Chained Fatty Acid Production in the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) Model®
by Trevor O. Kirby, Jeremy R. Townsend, Philip A. Sapp, Marlies Govaert, Cindy Duysburgh, Tess M. Marshall, Massimo Marzorati and Ralph Esposito
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(4), 489-498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3040035 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3672
Abstract
Recently, there is growing usage of prebiotics and probiotics as dietary supplements due to their purported health benefits. AG1® (AG1) is a novel foundational nutrition supplement which contains vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, wholefood concentrates, adaptogens, and functional mushrooms. AG1 could be classified as [...] Read more.
Recently, there is growing usage of prebiotics and probiotics as dietary supplements due to their purported health benefits. AG1® (AG1) is a novel foundational nutrition supplement which contains vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, wholefood concentrates, adaptogens, and functional mushrooms. AG1 could be classified as a synbiotic because it contains traditional and non-traditional prebiotics (e.g., inulin and phytonutrients) as well as lactic-acid-producing probiotics. The purpose of this study was to employ the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®) model, which measures various aspects of gastrointestinal fermentation, to investigate the synbiotic effects of AG1. The SHIME experiment quantified gas production, changes in pH, and byproducts of carbohydrate and protein fermentation at baseline, 1, 24, and 48 h following the administration of AG1 or a blank control. The results indicated that AG1 significantly increased (p < 0.05; 41.9% increase) the production of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetate (p = 0.001; 49.0% increase) and propionate (p < 0.001; 70.8% increase). Regarding non-carbohydrate fermentation byproducts, AG1 produced a small but significant increase in ammonium production (p = 0.02; 5.1% increase) but did not promote significant branched-chain SCFA production. These data suggest fermentation occurred in a transplanted human colonic microbiota and these processes were enhanced by the AG1 nutritional supplement. Ultimately, AG1 showed preclinical evidence as a synbiotic given the significant increases in total SCFA production, acetate, propionate, and other metabolic byproducts of fermentation. Full article
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