Background: Premature loss of primary teeth can occur as a consequence of dental trauma, neonatal tooth extraction, early childhood caries, or periodontal problems, or it can be a manifestation of systemic disease. This review aims to present systemic disorders that can lead to premature loss of deciduous teeth in children and to provide a comprehensive resource for clinical practice for both physicians and dentists. Methods: This study is a narrative review of original studies and case reports published in English and Polish between 1957 and 2021 that was conducted by searching electronic scientific resources: PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. The schema of the qualification process is represented by a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). In total, 196 articles were identified; after provisional assessment of the titles and abstracts by two reviewers, 46 were found to be relevant to the topic, including 1 review, 16 original papers, and 27 case reports regarding systemic disease resulting in premature tooth loss. Results: In this study, 16 systemic diseases were linked to premature primary tooth loss in children: Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome, mucocutaneous dyskeratosis, Coffin–Lowry syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, cherubism, hypophosphatasia, acatalasia, Chediak–Higashi syndrome, cyclic neutropenia, erythromelalgia, Down syndrome, Hajdu–Cheney syndrome, short bowel syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1), and Wiedemann–Steiner syndrome (WSS).
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