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Open AccessArticle

A New Citrinin Derivative from the Indonesian Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Penicillium citrinum

1
Department of Coastal Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
2
Department of Aquatic Resources, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
3
Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
4
Tropical Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
5
Marine Natural Product Laboratory, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
6
Department of Bioresources of the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), 35392 Giessen, Germany
7
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia
8
Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nihihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
9
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
10
Ministry of Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia
11
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040227
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antibiotics 2020)
Sponge-associated fungi are attractive targets for the isolation of bioactive natural products with different pharmaceutical purposes. In this investigation, 20 fungi were isolated from 10 different sponge specimens. One isolate, the fungus Penicillium citrinum strain WK-P9, showed activity against Bacillus subtilis JH642 when cultivated in malt extract medium. One new and three known citrinin derivatives were isolated from the extract of this fungus. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as LC-HRMS. Their antibacterial activity against a set of common human pathogenic bacteria and fungi was tested. Compound 2 showed moderate activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 µg/mL. Compound 4 exhibited moderate growth inhibition against Bacillus subtilis JH642, B. megaterium DSM32, and M. smegmatis ATCC607 with MICs of 16, 16, and 32 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, weak activities of 64 µg/mL against B. subtilis DSM10 and S. aureus ATCC25923 were observed for compound 4. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; citrinin derivatives; marine-derived fungi; Penicillium citrinum; penicitrinone; marine sponges antibacterial; citrinin derivatives; marine-derived fungi; Penicillium citrinum; penicitrinone; marine sponges
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sabdaningsih, A.; Liu, Y.; Mettal, U.; Heep, J.; Riyanti; Wang, L.; Cristianawati, O.; Nuryadi, H.; Triandala Sibero, M.; Marner, M.; Radjasa, O.K.; Sabdono, A.; Trianto, A.; Schäberle, T.F. A New Citrinin Derivative from the Indonesian Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Penicillium citrinum. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 227.

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