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Antibiotics Development and the Potentials of Marine-Derived Compounds to Stem the Tide of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria, Fungi, and Protozoa

1
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Marine Natural Products and Combinatorial Biosynthesis Chemistry, Guangxi Beibu Gulf Marine Research Center, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
2
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka PMB 410001, Nigeria
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka PMB 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria
4
Guangxi Biomass Industrialization Engineering Institute, National Engineering Research Center of Non-food Biorefinery, State Key Laboratory of Non-Food Biomass, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
5
College of Life Science and Technology of Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030145
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antibiotics 2020)
As the search for new antibiotics continues, the resistance to known antimicrobial compounds continues to increase. Many researchers around the world, in response to antibiotics resistance, have continued to search for new antimicrobial compounds in different ecological niches such as the marine environment. Marine habitats are one of the known and promising sources for bioactive compounds with antimicrobial potentials against currently drug-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. For more than a decade, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been discovered from marine environments, with many more antimicrobials still being discovered every year. So far, only very few compounds are in preclinical and clinical trials. Research in marine natural products has resulted in the isolation and identification of numerous diverse and novel chemical compounds with potency against even drug-resistant pathogens. Some of these compounds, which mainly came from marine bacteria and fungi, have been classified into alkaloids, lactones, phenols, quinones, tannins, terpenes, glycosides, halogenated, polyketides, xanthones, macrocycles, peptides, and fatty acids. All these are geared towards discovering and isolating unique compounds with therapeutic potential, especially against multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we tried to summarize published articles from 2015 to 2019 on antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine sources, including some of their chemical structures and tests performed against drug-resistant pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine; natural products; antimicrobials; drug-resistant; bacteria; fungi; algae invertebrates marine; natural products; antimicrobials; drug-resistant; bacteria; fungi; algae invertebrates
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Nweze, J.A.; Mbaoji, F.N.; Huang, G.; Li, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, S.; Pan, L.; Yang, D. Antibiotics Development and the Potentials of Marine-Derived Compounds to Stem the Tide of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria, Fungi, and Protozoa. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 145.

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