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Open AccessArticle

Antibacterial and Antiviral Activities of Local Thai Green Macroalgae Crude Extracts in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

1
Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Health Management, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
2
Department of Fishery Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
3
Phetchaburi Coastal Aquaculture Research and Development Center, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Phetchaburi 76100, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030140
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 27 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Microbial Compounds from Marine Sources)
Macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of bioactive secondary metabolites useful for the development of new functional ingredients. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the hot water crude extracts (HWCEs) of three species of local Thai green macroalgae Ulva intestinalis (Ui), U. rigida (Ur), and Caulopa lentillifera (Cl) and a commercial ulvan from U. armoricana (Ua). Chemical analysis indicated that the HWCE of Ur showed the highest sulfate content (13.9% ± 0.4%), while that of Ua contained the highest uronic acid and carbohydrate contents (41.47% ± 4.98% and 64.03% ± 2.75%, respectively), which were higher than those of Ur (32.75% ± 1.53% and 51.02% ± 3.72%). Structural analysis of these extracts by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that these HWCEs are complex with a signal at 1250 cm−1 corresponding to S=O stretching vibrations, while the signals at 850 cm−1 were attributed to the C–O–S bending vibration of the sulfate ester in the axial position. These HWCEs showed the growth suppression against some pathogenic Vibrio spp. Interestingly, the HWCEs from Ui at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL completely inhibited white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp injected with HWCE–WSSV preincubated solutions. This inhibitory effect was further confirmed by the reduction in viral loads and histopathology of surviving and moribund shrimp. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial activity; antiviral activity; white spot syndrome virus; WSSV; yellow head virus; YHV; green algae; Pacific white shrimp; Litopenaeus vannamei antibacterial activity; antiviral activity; white spot syndrome virus; WSSV; yellow head virus; YHV; green algae; Pacific white shrimp; Litopenaeus vannamei
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Klongklaew, N.; Praiboon, J.; Tamtin, M.; Srisapoome, P. Antibacterial and Antiviral Activities of Local Thai Green Macroalgae Crude Extracts in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 140.

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