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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060190

Optimum Production Conditions, Purification, Identification, and Antioxidant Activity of Violaxanthin from Microalga Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae)

Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract

Violaxanthin is a major xanthophyll pigment in the microalga Eustigmatos cf. polyphem, but the amount produced after propagation can vary depending upon culture conditions. In this study, the effects of cultivation time, nitrogen concentration, light intensity, and culture mode on violaxanthin production were investigated. The results showed that this microalga vigorously grew and maintained a high level of violaxanthin in the fed-batch culture, and the highest violaxanthin productivity of 1.10 ± 0.03 mg L−1 d−1 was obtained under low light illumination with 18 mM of initial nitrogen supply for ten days. Additionally, violaxanthin was purified from E. cf. polyphem by silica gel chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC), and identified with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The antioxidant activity of the purified violaxanthin was evaluated by three tests in vitro: reducing power assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical assays. The strongest inhibition of purified violaxanthin occurred during the scavenging of ABTS+ radicals, with EC50 of 15.25 μg mL−1. In conclusion, this is the first report to investigate the effects of different culture conditions on violaxanthin accumulation in E. cf. polyphem and provide a novel source for the production of violaxanthin that can be used for food and pharmaceutical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Eustigmatos cf. polyphem; violaxanthin; culture conditions; purification; antioxidant activity Eustigmatos cf. polyphem; violaxanthin; culture conditions; purification; antioxidant activity
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Wang, F.; Huang, L.; Gao, B.; Zhang, C. Optimum Production Conditions, Purification, Identification, and Antioxidant Activity of Violaxanthin from Microalga Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae). Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 190.

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