Boosted by the general aim of exploiting the biotechnological potential of the microbial component of biodiversity, research on the secondary metabolite production of endophytic fungi has remarkably increased in the past few decades. Novel compounds and bioactivities have resulted from this work, which has stimulated a more thorough consideration of various natural ecosystems as conducive contexts for the discovery of new drugs. Thriving at the frontier between land and sea, mangrove forests represent one of the most valuable areas in this respect. The present paper offers a review of the research on the characterization and biological activities of secondary metabolites from manglicolous strains of species belonging to the genus Talaromyces
. Aspects concerning the opportunity for a more reliable identification of this biological material in the light of recent taxonomic revisions are also discussed.
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