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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Nystatin in the Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis Induced by Candida albicans Resistant to Fluconazole

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Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Araraquara, Rua Humaitá, 1680, Araraquara 14801-903, SP, Brazil
2
Department of Physiology and Pathology, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Araraquara, Rua Humaitá, 1680, Araraquara 14801-903, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12030140
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy 2019)
Background: It has been demonstrated that azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans have a greater resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) when compared to their more susceptible counterparts. For this reason, the present study evaluated the efficacy of aPDT, together with nystatin (NYS), in the treatment of oral candidiasis in vivo. Methods: Mice were infected with fluconazole-resistant C. albicans (ATCC 96901). To perform the combined therapy, aPDT, mediated by Photodithazine (PDZ) and LED light, was used together with NYS. The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated by microbiological, macroscopic, histopathological and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy analyses of the lesions. The expression of p21 and p53, proteins associated with cell death, from the tongues of mice, was also performed. Results: The combined therapy reduced the fungal viability by around 2.6 log10 and decreased the oral lesions and the inflammatory reaction. Additionally, it stimulated the production of p53 and p21. Conclusions: The combined therapy is a promising alternative treatment for oral candidiasis induced by C. albicans resistant to fluconazole. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; Candida albicans; antifungals photodynamic therapy; Candida albicans; antifungals
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Janeth Rimachi Hidalgo, K.; Cabrini Carmello, J.; Carolina Jordão, C.; Aboud Barbugli, P.; de Sousa Costa, C.A.; Garcia de Oliveira Mima, E.; Pavarina, A.C. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Nystatin in the Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis Induced by Candida albicans Resistant to Fluconazole. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 140.

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