|Solution phase-based nanoparticle||AuNP-based core-satellite structure||Hg2+ incorporating DNA duplex||Glutathione (GSH)||0.1 μM||30 min||ND||Use of property of GSH with high affinity for Hg2+.|
Caused a blue shift in the LSPR peak by AuNP structural collapse upon exposure to GSH.
|; Figure 1A|
|CdSe/ZnSeS core/alloyed shell Quantum dot (Qdot)||DNA (molecular beacon)||Dengue virus||20 copies per mL||ND||ND||Quencher use: Change in PL Qdot depending on the presence/absence of target DNA in the sample. |
Conjugation of Qdots and AuNPs: boosting PL of Qdots by LSPR from AuNPs.
|; Figure 1B|
|AuNP||None||Melamine||0 μM to 0.9 μM, 33 nM ||ND||Liquid milk ||Use of unmodified AuNPs without the need for a receptor due to the interaction of amine groups of melamine and AuNPs.|
Recovery rate of 99.2~111%.
|AuNP||Aptamer||Ochratoxin A (OTA)||0.0316–316 ng/mL||>15 min||Spiked corn ||Use of color change based on AuNPs aggregation caused by competition between aptamer-bound Au NPs and OTA.|
Use of double calibration curve method to widen the detection range.
|NP-deposited flat substrate||AuNP on the glass slide||Aptamer||Salmonella typhimurium||1.0 × 104 CFU/mL, 104 CFU/mL ||>30–35 min||Pork meat||Fabrication of AuNP-coated transparent glass slide via a simple dipping adsorption method|
Use of APTES-immobilized glass slide to attach AuNPs
|; Figure 2A|
|Solid-based nanopatterned flatform||AuNP on the glass slide||Anti-CRP||C-reactive protein (CRP)||0.01–10 μg/mL, 11.28 ng/mL||ND||ND||Fabrication of a plasmonically active strip by depositing AuNPs on an APTES-immobilized glass slide.|
Use of cysteine-protein G to attach a receptor.
|Au nanorod (GNR)||Aptamer||25-hydroxyvitamin D3||0.1–105 ng/mL, 0.1 ng/mL||ND||Human serum albumin sample||Use of citrate as a stabilizer of GNR: improving LSPR signal.|||
|Heteroassembled AuNPs||Antibody||Hepatitis B surface antigen||100 fg/mL–10 ng/mL, 10 pg/mL||>10–15 min||Human serum ||Use of a multi-layered plasmonic structure by linking different-sized AuNPs.||; Figure 2B|
|GNR on glass slide||Aptamer||OTA, AFB1, ATP, and K+||0.56 pM for OTA, 0.63 pM for AFB1, 0.87 pM for ATP, 1.05 pM for K+||30 min||Ground corn powder, Escherichia coli, human serum||Use of berberine as an LSPR signal enhancer, which incorporates into the G-quadruplex structure that forms when the aptamer binds to the analyte and undergoes a conformational change.|||
|GNR on glass slide||Aptamer||Saxitoxin||5–10,000 μg/L, 2.46 μg/L||30 min||Mussel sample||Use of newly developed aptamers by implementing the graphene oxide (GOx)-SELEX method.|
Recovery rate of 96.13~116.05%.
|AuNP on glass slide||Antibody||Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers||4.9 fM for amyloid beta (Aβ)1–40,26 fM for Aβ1–42, and 23.6 fM for τ protein ||ND||Human plasma||Multiplex detection using nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes, each of which was functionalized with various marker-specific antibodies.|||
|AuNP-coated glass slide||DNA||MicroRNAs (miRNAs)||5 pM to 10 nM, 2.45 pM||ND||Mouse Sample (urine and plasma)||Incorporation of LSPR signal amplification strategy using a duplex-specific nuclease-mediated target recycling reaction.|
Use of Au NP coated with tannic acid (a hydrophilic polyphenol compound) that can interact with the phosphate backbone of DNA, thereby enhancing LSPR signal.
|; Figure 2C|
|Ag nanoprism on glass ||DNA probe||Bacterial DNA||5 fg/μL of E. coli DNA, 300 cfu/mL ||>15 min||ND||Fabrication of an LSPR platform by depositing Ag nanoprisms on poly-L-lysine-coated glass.|
Combined system consisting of microfluidic on-chip PCR and LSPRi using a digital micromirror device Real-time detection using a qPCR system.
|Ag nanocolumn on glass slide||Polymyxin B ||Lipopolysaccharide endotoxin ||340 pg/mL||ND||ND||Use of 3-mercaptopropionic acid to stabilize the Ag nanocolumn against oxidation and nanoparticle detachment in aqueous environments.|||
|Ag nanocolumn on glass slide||Antibody||Prostate-Specific Antigen||850 pg/mL||ND||ND||Use of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid as a stabilizer of the Ag nanocolumn.|| |
|Ag nanostructure on silicon substrate||NS1 antigen-specific antibody (IgG)||NS1 antigen of dengue virus||0.06 μg/mL||>30 min||Whole blood||Fabrication of nanostructures by E-beam evaporation and thermal annealing of thin silver film.|
Integration of polyethersulfone membrane filter at the inlet of a biosensor for plasma separation.
Small sample volume requirements (10 μL of whole blood sample).
|; Figure 2D|
|Nickel-doped graphene (NDG) on self-assembled gold nanoislands (SAM AuNI)||GOx||3-nitro-L-tyrosine (3-NT)||0.1 pg/mL–10 ng/mL, 0.13 pg/mL||ND||Human serum||Fabrication of imprinted nanostructure by thermal annealing of Au, followed by spin coating and thermal annealing of graphene and nickel.|
Use of strong energy adsorption by π–π stacking interaction between NO2 site of 3-NT and NDG
|Poly(mPD-co-ASA) on SAM-AuNI||Poly(m-phenylenediamine-co-ani-line-2-sulfonic acid) (Poly(mPD-co-ASA))||Pb2+||0.011 ppb–5 ppm, 0.011 ppb ||ND||Drinking water||Use of poly(mPD-co-ASA) as a linker with AuNI and Pb2+ receptor.|||
|SAM-AuNIs||Anti-CD7 antibody||Exosome||0.194–100 μg/mL, 0.194 μg/ml||ND||Serum, urine||Use of exosome properties with high affinity for AuNI due to its negative zeta potential value|||
|SAM-AuNIs||Anti-IgG||Human IgG antigen||1 pM–100 pM, 1.188 pM||ND||Serum|| |||
|3D Au nanocups platform on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface||Antibody||Human IgG||1.5 μg/mL||ND||ND||Fabrication of imprinted nanostructures by deposition of a polystyrene (PS) monolayer on glass, pouring PDMS on a PS layer, peeling off the PDMS film, and coating the PDMS substrate with an Au film.|
Fabrication of uniform and tunable platform by changing the PS size.
|; Figure 3B|
| ||Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) nanodisks on PDMS||None||Cancer cell (adherent cell)||NA||ND||ND||Construction of a MIM nanodisk consisting of Au-SiO2-Au on an InP substrate.|
Fabrication of a flexible sensor by transferring a MIM nanodisk onto PDMS.
|; Figure 3C|
|Au and AgNPs on PET cone array structure||Mercaptophenyl boronic acid ||Sialic acid||0.05–5 mM, 17 μM||ND||ND||Fabrication of core array nanostructures by depositing Au and AgNPs on (poly)ethylene terephthalate (PET).|
Combined system consisting of LSPR and an electrochemical sensing system.
|; Figure 3D|
|Au-deposited 3D polyurethane acrylate (PUA) nanostructure||Locked nucleic acid ||miRNAs||13 fM (2.6 attomole in 200 μL)||ND||Primary cancer cell lines||Fabrication of 3D plasmonic nanostructure consisting of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography-used PUA nanograting pattern, followed by Au deposition.|
Detection of miRNA single-base mismatches down to the attomole level by incorporating a biotin-streptavidin-horseradish precipitation reaction.
|; Figure 3A|
|Au nano-ellipsoid array on quartz substrate||Anti-CD63 antibody||Exosome||1 ng/mL||<4 h||ND||Fabrication of nanostructures via AAO-templated Au deposition on a quartz substrate.|
Integration of LSPR and microfluidic systems.
|Au nanopillars on quartz coverslips||Anti-CD63 antibody||Exosome||ND||ND||MCF7 breastadenocarcinoma cells||Fabrication of Au nanopillar array by electron beam lithography.|
Enabled multiplexed measurement using LSPRi.
|Au nanopillar||Mercaptobenzoic acid||BSA||234 pM||ND||ND||Working in the visible and infrared region by changing the patterned shapes and interpillar distances.|||
|Au film on glass wafer||Anti-IgG, anti-TNF-α, anti-CRP antibody||IgG, TNF-α, CRP||10 ng/mL IgG, 10 ng/mL CRP||3.5 h||ND||Fabrication of nanostructure using physical vapor evaporation followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment.|||
| ||Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) on glass substrate||Aptamer||Staphylococcus aureus||103 CFU/mL||120 s||Milk||Fabrication of arrays of Au nanodisks on PMMA-treated glass substrate by using hole-mask colloidal lithography.|
Optimization of disk structure by varying diameter: improving LSPR signal.
|NP-coated optic fiber-based platform||AuNPs-immobilized taperfiber||Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx)||Cholesterol||10 nM–1 µM, 53.1 nM||ND||ND||Fabrication of sensing component by sequentially coating MUA-EDC/NHS-ChOx on AuNPs-immobilized fiber. ||; Figure 4A|
| ||GNRs immobilized on the optical fiber core surface||Aptamer||OTA||10 pM to 100 nM, 12.0 pM||ND||Grape juice||Detection by simply dipping an optical fiber into a sample solution, allowing in situ detection. ||;|
|AuNPs-coated optical fiber ||Anti-transferrin, protein A||Transferrin, protein IgG||ND||ND||ND||Combined system consisting of capillary LSPR sensors and metal–oxide–semiconductor image sensors.|
Use of AuNPs-coated capillary as a microfluidic channel and sensing surface.
Multiple detection for high throughput screening of biomolecular interactions
|Optical fiber with copper oxide nanoflower (CuO-NF) and Au NPs-coated GOx structure||2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG)||Cancer cell||1 × 102–1 × 106 cells/mL, 2–10 cells/mL ||ND||ND||Use of multi-core fiber structure.|
Coating of optical fiber with GOx and CuO-NF: increasing surface area and adsorption capability.
Discrimination of cancer cells using 2-DG that binds to GULP receptor: the presence of more GULP receptors on cancer cell, inducing a peak shift.
Reusable through washing with PBS.
|AuNPs-coated optical fiber||Aptamer||Zearalenone (ZEN)||1–480 ng/mL, 0.102 ng/mL||ND||Beer||Reusable by cutting and polishing a tip of optical fiber.|||
|Optical fiber||Anti-IgG antibody||IgG||1 fg/mL to 100 fg/mL, 7 aM ||25–30 min||ND||Use of silver enhancer: amplifying the LSPR signal by catalytic reduction of silver around AuNPs.|
Use of U-bent optical fiber.
|Optical fiber||IgG antibody||Staphylococcus aureus||3.1 CFU/mL||ND||ND||Use of the tapered singlemode-no core-singlemode fiber coupler structure.|||
|MoS2/AuNPs-coated optical fiber||Aptamer||Shigella sonnei||1 – 1×109, 1.56 CFU/mL||5 min||ND||Use of single mode fiber-multi-core fiber structure.|||
|AuPd alloy-coated plastic optical fiber||Anti-cortisol||Cortisol||1 pg/mL||ND||ND||Use of plastic optical fiber. |||
|Au film-coated optical fiber||Aptamer, HER2 antibody||Breast cancer HER2 protein||9.3 ng/mL (77.4 pM)||10 min||ND||HER2 biomarker detection using sandwich assay with anti-HER2 ssDNA aptamer and HER2 antibody.|||
|ZnO/AuNP-coated optical fiber||Ascorbate oxidase ||Ascorbic acid||1 µM to 200 µM, 12.56 µM ||ND||ND||Use of tapered optical fiber structure immobilized with ZnO-AuNPs.|||
|AuNP-modified the bare core ||Probe DNA||Hg2+||1–50 nM, 0.7 nM||ND||Pond water ||Functionalization of DNA-attached Au NP monolayer on optical fibers, resulting in an increase in the refractive index at the nanometer length region and near field coupling enhancement produced by close proximity to another-attached Au NPs via DNA-DNA hybridization |
Use of PAH, yielding enhanced sensitivity due to the higher density and less aggregation of Au NPs Reusability by dipping optical fiber into 1% SDS solution for 5 min
|; Figure 4C|