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Open AccessArticle

Measuring Outdoor Walking Capacities Using Global Positioning System in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Methodological Insights from an Exploratory Study

Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (IFEPSA), West Catholic University (UCO), F-49136 Les Ponts-de-Cé, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of the SOCOS Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Marco Iosa
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 3189; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093189
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Gait, Human Movement Analysis, and Health Monitoring)
We aimed at showing how Global Positioning System (GPS) along with a previously validated speed processing methodology could be used to measure outdoor walking capacities in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We also deal with methodological issues that may occur when conducting such measurements, and explore to what extent GPS-measured outdoor walking capacities (maximal walking distance [MWDGPS] and usual walking speed) could be related to traditional functional outcomes (6-min total walking distance) in people with MS. Eighteen people with MS, with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤6, completed a 6-min walking test and an outdoor walking session (60 min maximum) at usual pace during which participants were wearing a DG100 GPS receiver and could perform several walking bouts. Among the 12 participants with valid data (i.e., who correctly completed the outdoor session with no spurious GPS signals that could prevent the detection of the occurrence of a walking/stopping bout), the median (90% confidence interval, CI) outdoor walking speed was 2.52 km/h (2.17; 2.93). Ten participants (83% (56; 97)) had ≥1 stop during the session. Among these participants, the median of MWDGPS was 410 m (226; 1350), and 40% (15; 70) did not reach their MWDGPS during the first walking bout. Spearman correlations of MWDGPS and walking speed with 6-min total walking distance were, respectively, 0.19 (−0.41; 0.95) and 0.66 (0.30; 1.00). Further work is required to provide guidance about GPS assessment in people with MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: functional capacity; overground walking; ambulatory assessment; wearable sensor functional capacity; overground walking; ambulatory assessment; wearable sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delahaye, C.; Chaves, D.; Congnard, F.; Noury-Desvaux, B.; de Müllenheim, P.-Y.; on behalf of the SOCOS Group. Measuring Outdoor Walking Capacities Using Global Positioning System in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Methodological Insights from an Exploratory Study. Sensors 2021, 21, 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093189

AMA Style

Delahaye C, Chaves D, Congnard F, Noury-Desvaux B, de Müllenheim P-Y, on behalf of the SOCOS Group. Measuring Outdoor Walking Capacities Using Global Positioning System in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Methodological Insights from an Exploratory Study. Sensors. 2021; 21(9):3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delahaye, Coralie; Chaves, Dorine; Congnard, Florian; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; on behalf of the SOCOS Group. 2021. "Measuring Outdoor Walking Capacities Using Global Positioning System in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Methodological Insights from an Exploratory Study" Sensors 21, no. 9: 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093189

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