The process of the structural diagnosis of historical buildings is analyzed. The correlation of different data is a fundamental issue, related to the multidisciplinary nature of the study of built heritage. Quantitative data are collected by sensors, these being environmental data (temperature and humidity) or cracks (displacements). Another important source being qualitative data, derived from historic investigation, diagnostic investigations, etc. However sometimes the results may be difficult to correlate due to the different nature of the data, being quantitative and qualitative, as well as spread over the long life of the construction. In particular, the here proposed methodology suggests the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scanning for the geometric and structural deformation survey, damage survey, historic evolution, monitoring of the crack pattern and environmental data. The integrated use of the collected data with digital and finite element models is investigated in two case studies. The combined use of the set of collected data is shown to be fundamental to the interpretation of the active damage mechanisms in the system, and for making appropriate decisions related to their safety. Finally, a guideline is proposed to allow for a more general use of the herein proposed structural diagnosis procedure.
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