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Development of a Portable, Ultra-Rapid and Ultra-Sensitive Cell-Based Biosensor for the Direct Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike Protein Antigen
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Point-of-Care Diagnostics of COVID-19: From Current Work to Future Perspectives

1
Virology Department, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Dokki, Giza 12619, Egypt
2
Nanoscience Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6th October City, Giza 12578, Egypt
3
Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
4
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”. Via Cintia 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
5
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council (CNR), Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154289
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Diagnosis of the New Coronavirus)
Coronaviruses have received global concern since 2003, when an outbreak caused by SARS-CoV emerged in China. Later on, in 2012, the Middle-East respiratory syndrome spread in Saudi Arabia, caused by MERS-CoV. Currently, the global crisis is caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the same lineage of SARS-CoV. In response to the urgent need of diagnostic tools, several lab-based and biosensing techniques have been proposed so far. Five main areas have been individuated and discussed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The cell-culture detection and the microneutralization tests are still considered highly reliable methods. The genetic screening, featuring the well-established Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), represents the gold standard for virus detection in nasopharyngeal swabs. On the other side, immunoassays were developed, either by screening/antigen recognition of IgM/IgG or by detecting the whole virus, in blood and sera. Next, proteomic mass-spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies have also been proposed for the analysis of swab samples. Finally, virus-biosensing devices were efficiently designed. Both electrochemical immunosensors and eye-based technologies have been described, showing detection times lower than 10 min after swab introduction. Alternative to swab-based techniques, lateral flow point-of-care immunoassays are already commercially available for the analysis of blood samples. Such biosensing devices hold the advantage of being portable for on-site testing in hospitals, airports, and hotspots, virtually without any sample treatment or complicated lab precautions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensors; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; point-of-care devices; immunoassays; spike protein biosensors; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; point-of-care devices; immunoassays; spike protein
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Hussein, H.A.; Hassan, R.Y.A.; Chino, M.; Febbraio, F. Point-of-Care Diagnostics of COVID-19: From Current Work to Future Perspectives. Sensors 2020, 20, 4289.

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