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Development of a Portable, Ultra-Rapid and Ultra-Sensitive Cell-Based Biosensor for the Direct Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike Protein Antigen
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Point-of-Care Diagnostics of COVID-19: From Current Work to Future Perspectives

Virology Department, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Dokki, Giza 12619, Egypt
Nanoscience Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6th October City, Giza 12578, Egypt
Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”. Via Cintia 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council (CNR), Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4289;
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Diagnosis of the New Coronavirus)
Coronaviruses have received global concern since 2003, when an outbreak caused by SARS-CoV emerged in China. Later on, in 2012, the Middle-East respiratory syndrome spread in Saudi Arabia, caused by MERS-CoV. Currently, the global crisis is caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the same lineage of SARS-CoV. In response to the urgent need of diagnostic tools, several lab-based and biosensing techniques have been proposed so far. Five main areas have been individuated and discussed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The cell-culture detection and the microneutralization tests are still considered highly reliable methods. The genetic screening, featuring the well-established Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), represents the gold standard for virus detection in nasopharyngeal swabs. On the other side, immunoassays were developed, either by screening/antigen recognition of IgM/IgG or by detecting the whole virus, in blood and sera. Next, proteomic mass-spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies have also been proposed for the analysis of swab samples. Finally, virus-biosensing devices were efficiently designed. Both electrochemical immunosensors and eye-based technologies have been described, showing detection times lower than 10 min after swab introduction. Alternative to swab-based techniques, lateral flow point-of-care immunoassays are already commercially available for the analysis of blood samples. Such biosensing devices hold the advantage of being portable for on-site testing in hospitals, airports, and hotspots, virtually without any sample treatment or complicated lab precautions. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensors; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; point-of-care devices; immunoassays; spike protein biosensors; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; point-of-care devices; immunoassays; spike protein
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Hussein, H.A.; Hassan, R.Y.A.; Chino, M.; Febbraio, F. Point-of-Care Diagnostics of COVID-19: From Current Work to Future Perspectives. Sensors 2020, 20, 4289.

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