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Strategies and Techniques for Powering Wireless Sensor Nodes through Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transfer

1
STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.9, 90128 Palermo, Italy
3
Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Catania, viale A. Doria 6, 95126 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122660
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Sensors)
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Abstract

The continuous development of internet of things (IoT) infrastructure and applications is paving the way for advanced and innovative ideas and solutions, some of which are pushing the limits of state-of-the-art technology. The increasing demand for Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSNs) able to collect and transmit data through wireless communication channels, while often positioned in locations that are difficult to access, is driving research into innovative solutions involving energy harvesting (EH) and wireless power transfer (WPT) to eventually allow battery-free sensor nodes. Due to the pervasiveness of radio frequency (RF) energy, RF EH and WPT are key technologies with the potential to power IoT devices and smart sensing architectures involving nodes that need to be wireless, maintenance free, and sufficiently low in cost to promote their use almost anywhere. This paper presents a state-of-the-art, ultra-low power 2.5 μ W highly integrated mixed signal system on chip (SoC), for multi-source energy harvesting and wireless power transfer. It introduces a novel architecture that integrates an ultra-low power intelligent power management, an RF to DC converter with very low power sensitivity and high power conversion efficiency (PCE), an Amplitude-Shift-Keying/Frequency-Shift-Keying (ASK/FSK) receiver and digital circuitry to achieve the advantage to cope, in a versatile way and with minimal use of external components, with the wide variety of energy sources and use cases. Diverse methods for powering Wireless Sensor Nodes through energy harvesting and wireless power transfer are implemented providing related system architectures and experimental results. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSNs; radio frequency; energy harvesting; wireless battery charger; lithium ion battery; wireless sensor networks; internet of things WSNs; radio frequency; energy harvesting; wireless battery charger; lithium ion battery; wireless sensor networks; internet of things
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

La Rosa, R.; Livreri, P.; Trigona, C.; Di Donato, L.; Sorbello, G. Strategies and Techniques for Powering Wireless Sensor Nodes through Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transfer. Sensors 2019, 19, 2660.

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