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Dynamic Measurements Using FDM 3D-Printed Embedded Strain Sensors

1
Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Goffredo Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Poljanska c. 26a, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122661
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

3D-printing technology is opening up new possibilities for the co-printing of sensory elements. While quasi-static research has shown promise, the dynamic performance has yet to be researched. This study researched smart 3D structures with embedded and printed sensory elements. The embedded strain sensor was based on the conductive PLA (Polylactic Acid) material. The research was focused on dynamic measurements of the strain and considered the theoretical background of the piezoresistivity of conductive PLA materials, the temperature effects, the nonlinearities, the dynamic range, the electromagnetic sensitivity and the frequency range. A quasi-static calibration used in the dynamic measurements was proposed. It was shown that the temperature effects were negligible, the sensory element was linear as long as the structure had a linear response, the dynamic range started at ∼ 30 μ ϵ and broadband performance was in the range of few kHz (depending on the size of the printed sensor). The promising results support future applications of smart 3D-printed systems with embedded sensory elements being used for dynamic measurements in areas where currently piezo-crystal-based sensors are used. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D-printing; strain sensors; embedded sensors; dynamic measurements; fused deposition modeling; smart structures 3D-printing; strain sensors; embedded sensors; dynamic measurements; fused deposition modeling; smart structures
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Maurizi, M.; Slavič, J.; Cianetti, F.; Jerman, M.; Valentinčič, J.; Lebar, A.; Boltežar, M. Dynamic Measurements Using FDM 3D-Printed Embedded Strain Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 2661.

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