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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093038

Avoiding Void Holes and Collisions with Reliable and Interference-Aware Routing in Underwater WSNs

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Farasan Networking Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science & Information System, University, Jazan 82822-6694, Saudi Arabia
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Majid, A.; Azam, I.; Khan, T.; Sangeen; Khan, Z.A.; Qasim, U.; Javaid, N. (2016) “A Reliable and Interference-Aware Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the 2016 10th International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), Fukuoka, Japan, 6–8 July 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Research Trends in Internet of Things and Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Sparse node deployment and dynamic network topology in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) result in void hole problem. In this paper, we present two interference-aware routing protocols for UWSNs (Intar: interference-aware routing; and Re-Intar: reliable and interference-aware routing). In proposed protocols, we use sender based approach to avoid the void hole. The beauty of the proposed schemes is that they not only avoid void hole but also reduce the probability of collision. The proposed Re-Intar also uses one-hop backward transmission at the source node to further improve the packet delivery ratio of the network. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in terms of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; energy consumption; void hole; interference; backward transmission underwater wireless sensor networks; energy consumption; void hole; interference; backward transmission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Javaid, N.; Majid, A.; Sher, A.; Khan, W.Z.; Aalsalem, M.Y. Avoiding Void Holes and Collisions with Reliable and Interference-Aware Routing in Underwater WSNs. Sensors 2018, 18, 3038.

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