Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue
AbstractThe use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold) housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6.9–115 mg/L), sulfate (32–472 mg/L), fluoride (0.08–0.26 mg/L), chloride (17–190 mg/L), and sodium (11–94 mg/L) as well as pH (7.3–7.8). These parameters were also determined by routine analytical methods in spring water samples. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis was run to obtain a model to predict these parameter. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was applied in the preprocessing step. Calibration (67%) and validation (33%) sets were selected randomly. The electronic tongue showed good predictive power to determine the concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium as well as pH and displayed a lower R2 and slope in the validation set for fluoride. Nitrate and fluoride concentrations were estimated with errors lower than 15%, whereas chloride, sulfate, and sodium concentrations as well as pH were estimated with errors below 10%. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Carbó, N.; López Carrero, J.; Garcia-Castillo, F.J.; Tormos, I.; Olivas, E.; Folch, E.; Alcañiz Fillol, M.; Soto, J.; Martínez-Máñez, R.; Martínez-Bisbal, M.C. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue. Sensors 2018, 18, 40.
Carbó N, López Carrero J, Garcia-Castillo FJ, Tormos I, Olivas E, Folch E, Alcañiz Fillol M, Soto J, Martínez-Máñez R, Martínez-Bisbal MC. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue. Sensors. 2018; 18(1):40.Chicago/Turabian Style
Carbó, Noèlia; López Carrero, Javier; Garcia-Castillo, F. J.; Tormos, Isabel; Olivas, Estela; Folch, Elisa; Alcañiz Fillol, Miguel; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Martínez-Bisbal, M. C. 2018. "Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue." Sensors 18, no. 1: 40.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.